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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark one)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ___________ to ______________
COMMISSION FILE NUMBER 1-16483
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Mondelēz International, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Virginia52-2284372
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
905 West Fulton Market, Suite 200
Chicago,
Illinois60607
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: 847-943-4000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, no par valueMDLZThe Nasdaq Global Select Market
1.625% Notes due 2027MDLZ27The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
0.250% Notes due 2028MDLZ28The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
0.750% Notes due 2033MDLZ33The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
2.375% Notes due 2035MDLZ35The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
4.500% Notes due 2035MDLZ35AThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
1.375% Notes due 2041MDLZ41The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
3.875% Notes due 2045MDLZ45The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  x
Note: Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act from their obligations under those Sections.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes   x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerx Accelerated filer¨
Non-accelerated filer¨ Smaller reporting company
  Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b) ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes      No  x
The aggregate market value of the shares of Class A Common Stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, computed by reference to the closing price of such stock on June 30, 2023, was $99.2 billion. At January 30, 2024, there were 1,346,477,411 shares of the registrant’s Class A Common Stock outstanding.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission in connection with its annual meeting of shareholders expected to be held on May 22, 2024 are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.


Table of Contents
Mondelēz International, Inc.
  Page No.
Item 1.
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Item 16.
In this report, for all periods presented, “we,” “us,” “our,” “the Company” and “Mondelēz International” refer to Mondelēz International, Inc. and subsidiaries. References to “Common Stock” refer to our Class A Common Stock.
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Forward-Looking Statements

This report contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. All statements other than statements of historical fact are “forward-looking statements” for purposes of federal and state securities laws, including any projections of earnings, revenue or other financial items; any statements of the plans, strategies and objectives of management, including for future operations, capital expenditures or share repurchases; any statements concerning proposed new products, services, or developments; any statements regarding future economic conditions or performance; any statements of belief or expectation; and any statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing or other future events. Forward-looking statements may include, among others, the words, and variations of words, “will,” “may,” “expect,” “would,” “could,” “might,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “likely,” “estimate,” “anticipate,” “objective,” “predict,” “project,” “drive,” “seek,” “aim,” “target,” “potential,” “commitment,” “outlook,” “continue” or any other similar words.

Although we believe that the expectations reflected in any of our forward-looking statements are reasonable, actual results or outcomes could differ materially from those projected or assumed in any of our forward-looking statements. Our future financial condition and results of operations, as well as any forward-looking statements, are subject to change and to inherent risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control. Important factors that could cause our actual results or performance to differ materially from those contained in or implied by our forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, the following:

weakness in macroeconomic conditions in our markets, including as a result of inflation (and related monetary policy actions by governments in response to inflation), instability of certain financial institutions, volatility of commodity and other input costs and availability of commodities;
geopolitical uncertainty, including the impact of ongoing or new developments in Ukraine and the Middle East, related current and future sanctions imposed by governments and other authorities and related impacts, including on our business operations, employees, reputation, brands, financial condition and results of operations;
competition and our response to channel shifts and pricing and other competitive pressures;
pricing actions and customer and consumer responses to such actions;
promotion and protection of our reputation and brand image;
weakness in consumer spending and/or changes in consumer preferences and demand and our ability to predict, identify, interpret and meet these changes;
risks from operating globally, including in emerging markets, such as political, economic and regulatory risks;
the outcome and effects on us of legal and tax proceedings and government investigations, including the European Commission legal matter;
use of information technology and third party service providers;
unanticipated disruptions to our business, such as malware incidents, cyberattacks or other security breaches, and supply, commodity, labor and transportation constraints;
our ability to identify, complete, manage and realize the full extent of the benefits, cost savings or synergies presented by strategic transactions, including our recently completed acquisitions of Ricolino, Clif Bar, Chipita, Gourmet Food, Grenade and Hu;
our investments and our ownership interests in those investments, including JDE Peet's;
the restructuring program and our other transformation initiatives not yielding the anticipated benefits;
changes in the assumptions on which the restructuring program is based;
the impact of climate change on our supply chain and operations;
global or regional health pandemics or epidemics;
consolidation of retail customers and competition with retailer and other economy brands;
changes in our relationships with customers, suppliers or distributors;
management of our workforce and shifts in labor availability or labor costs;
compliance with legal, regulatory, tax and benefit laws and related changes, claims or actions;
perceived or actual product quality issues or product recalls;
failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting or disclosure controls and procedures;
our ability to protect our intellectual property and intangible assets;
tax matters including changes in tax laws and rates, disagreements with taxing authorities and imposition of new taxes;
changes in currency exchange rates, controls and restrictions;
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volatility of and access to capital or other markets, rising interest rates, the effectiveness of our cash management programs and our liquidity;
pension costs;
significant changes in valuation factors that may adversely affect our impairment testing of goodwill and intangible assets; and
the risks and uncertainties, as they may be amended from time to time, set forth in our filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, including this Annual Report on Form 10-K and subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q.

There may be other factors not presently known to us or which we currently consider to be immaterial that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those projected in any forward-looking statements we make. We disclaim and do not undertake any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statement in this report except as required by applicable law or regulation. In addition, historical, current and forward-looking sustainability-related statements may be based on standards for measuring progress that are still developing, internal controls and processes that continue to evolve, and assumptions that are subject to change in the future.



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PART I
Item 1. Business.

General

Mondelēz International’s purpose is to empower people to snack right. We sell our products in over 150 countries around the world. We are one of the world’s largest snack companies with global net revenues of $36.0 billion and net earnings of $5.0 billion in 2023. Our core business is making and selling chocolate, biscuits and baked snacks. We also have additional businesses in adjacent, locally relevant categories including gum & candy, cheese & grocery and powdered beverages. Our portfolio includes iconic global and local brands such as Oreo, Ritz, LU, CLIF Bar and Tate’s Bake Shop biscuits and baked snacks, as well as Cadbury Dairy Milk, Milka and Toblerone chocolate.

We strive to create a positive impact on the world and communities in which we operate while driving business performance. Our goal is to lead the future of snacking around the world by offering the right snack, for the right moment, made the right way. We aim to deliver a broad range of delicious, high-quality snacks that nourish life’s moments, made with sustainable ingredients and packaging that consumers can feel good about. We remain committed to helping to drive longstanding, enduring, positive change in the world.

Strategy

We aim to be the global leader in snacking by focusing on growth, execution, culture and sustainability. We are optimizing our portfolio of leading brands and have refined our strategy to accelerate growth, prioritizing our fast-growing core categories of chocolate, biscuits and baked snacks. Our strategic plan builds on our strong foundations, including leadership in attractive categories, an attractive global footprint, a strong core of iconic global and local brands, marketing, sales, distribution and cost excellence capabilities, and top talent with a growth mindset.

Our plan to drive long-term growth includes four strategic priorities:

Accelerate consumer-centric growth. Our consumers are the reason we want to be the best snacking company in the world, and we put them at the heart of everything we do. With our consumers in mind, we are focused on accelerating and increasing our focus on chocolate, biscuits and baked snacks by investing in both our global and local brands. We are working to deliver multi-category growth in key geographies, expand our presence in high growth channels and increase our presence in under-represented segments and price tiers. As demands on consumers’ time increase and consumer eating habits evolve, we aim to meet consumers' snacking needs. We plan to test, learn and scale new product offerings quickly to meet diverse and evolving local and global snacking demand.

Drive operational excellence. Our operational excellence and continuous improvement plans include a special focus on the consumer-facing areas of our business and optimizing our sales, marketing and customer service efforts. To drive productivity gains and cost improvements across our business, we also plan to continue leveraging our global shared services platform, driving greater efficiencies in our supply chain informed by a consumer-centric approach and applying strong cost discipline across our operations. We expect the improvements and efficiencies we drive will fuel our growth and continue to expand profit dollars. We are also focused on boosting digital commerce and our digital transformation program that will help to enable consumer demand and sales opportunities.

Build a winning growth culture. To support the acceleration of our growth, we are becoming more agile, digital and local-consumer focused. We are committed to investing in a diverse and talented workforce that helps our business move forward with greater speed and agility along with future-forward growth capabilities. We empower our local teams to innovate and deliver consumers’ snacking needs while continuing to leverage our global scale to efficiently support our growth strategy. We have given our local teams more autonomy to drive commercial and innovation plans as they are closer to the needs and desires of consumers. We will continue to leverage the efficiency and scale of our regional operating units while empowering our local and commercial operations to respond faster to changing consumer preferences and capitalize on growth opportunities. We believe our commitment to diversity, equity and inclusion and operating and cultural shifts to continue building a winning growth culture will help drive profitable top-line growth.
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Scale sustainable snacking. We continue to focus significant efforts to drive progress against our core initiatives for more sustainable and mindful snacking. We have a clear strategic approach to focus on the areas where we believe we can drive the most impact with a sustainable snacking strategy, with environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) goals and initiatives that include significant involvement and oversight by our leadership and Board of Directors. This includes ongoing efforts to sustainably source key ingredients, reduce our end-to-end environmental impact and innovate our processes and packaging to reduce waste and promote recycling. Please see our Sustainability and Mindful Snacking section below.

We run our business with a long-term perspective and we believe the successful delivery of our strategic plan will drive consistent top- and bottom-line growth and enable us to create long-term value for our shareholders.

Global Operations

We sell our products in over 150 countries and have operations in approximately 80 countries, including 148 manufacturing and processing facilities across 46 countries. The portion of our net revenues generated outside the United States was 73.4% in 2023, 73.6% in 2022 and 75.1% in 2021. For more information on our U.S. and non-U.S. operations, refer to Note 18, Segment Reporting; on our manufacturing and other facilities, refer to Item 2, Properties; and on risks related to our operations outside the United States, see Item 1A, Risk Factors.

We also monitor our revenue growth across emerging markets and developed markets:
Our emerging markets include our Latin America region in its entirety; the Asia, Middle East and Africa (“AMEA”) region, excluding Australia, New Zealand and Japan; and the following countries from the Europe region: Russia, Ukraine, Türkiye, Kazakhstan, Georgia, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, the Baltics and the East Adriatic countries.
Our developed markets include the entire North America region, the Europe region excluding the countries included in the emerging markets definition, and Australia, New Zealand and Japan from the AMEA region.

Reportable Segments

Our operations and management structure are organized into four operating segments:
Latin America
AMEA
Europe
North America

We manage our operations by region to leverage regional operating scale, manage different and changing business environments more effectively and pursue growth opportunities as they arise across our key markets. Our regional management teams have responsibility for the business, product categories and financial results in the regions.

Please see Note 18, Segment Reporting and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for additional information.

Product Categories

Our brands span five product categories:
Biscuits & Baked Snacks (including cookies, crackers, salted snacks, snack bars and cakes & pastries)
Chocolate
Gum & candy
Beverages
Cheese & grocery

Seasonality

Demand for our products is generally balanced throughout the year, with increases in the fourth quarter primarily because of holidays and other seasonal events. Depending on the timing of Easter, the holiday sales may shift between and affect net revenue in the first and second quarter.



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Customers

We generally sell our products to supermarket chains, wholesalers, supercenters, club stores, mass merchandisers, distributors, convenience stores, gasoline stations, drug stores, value stores and other retail food outlets. We also sell products directly to businesses and consumers through various pure play e-retail platforms, retailer digital platforms, our direct-to-consumer websites and social media platforms. No single customer accounted for 10% or more of our net revenues from continuing operations in 2023. For a discussion of long-term demographics, consumer trends and demand, refer to our Financial Outlook within Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

Distribution and Marketing

Our product distribution network encompasses direct store delivery, company-owned and satellite warehouses, distribution centers, third party distributors and other facilities. Additionally, we leverage the services of independent sales offices and agents in various international locations. Through our global digital commerce organization and capabilities, we pursue online growth with partners in key markets around the world, including both pure e-tailers and omni-channel retailers. We continue to invest in advertising and consumer promotions, talent and digital capabilities. Our digital commerce channel strategies play a critical role in our ambition to be the global leader in snacking.

Our marketing initiatives are categorized in three principal sets of activities: (i) consumer marketing and advertising including digital and social media, on-air, print, outdoor and other product promotions; (ii) consumer sales incentives such as coupons and rebates; and (iii) trade promotions to support price features, displays and other merchandising of our products by our customers.

Research, Development and Innovation

Our innovation and new product development objectives include continuous improvement in food safety and quality, growth through new products, superior consumer satisfaction and reduced production costs. Our innovation efforts focus on anticipating consumer demands and adapting quickly to changing market trends. We work to test and learn new ideas and implement successful ones into other areas of our business. We aim to address consumer needs and market trends while leveraging scalable innovation platforms, sustainability and packaging programs and breakthrough technologies in order to delight our consumers, fuel our growth and reduce our environmental impact. To drive growth, creativity, greater effectiveness, improved efficiency and accelerated project delivery, we are focusing our technical research and development resources at technical centers around the globe.

Mindful snacking and sustainability are a significant focus of our current research and development initiatives. We work to introduce new varieties of our core products, including new taste or nutrition profiles that cater to evolving consumer preferences, such as the introduction of Toblerone Pralines in a new market segment and a vegan 100% plant-based Philadelphia cream cheese. Additionally, we are expanding our portfolio of cakes and pastries with updated formats including Milka brownies and Oreo cakes.

We also have a dedicated innovation and venture hub, SnackFutures, specifically tailored to leverage emerging consumer trends and growth opportunities in mindful snacking. The core objectives of this group are aligned with three key strategic areas: invent new brands and businesses, invest in early-stage entrepreneurs, and amplify SnackFutures’ influence through the CoLab start-up engagement and mentoring programs built to equip start-ups with essential tools, technologies and expertise that can help them learn, grow and succeed.

Competition

We operate in highly competitive markets that are comprised of global, regional and local competitors, including new start-up brands and businesses. Some competitors have different profit objectives and investment time horizons than we do and therefore may approach pricing and promotional decisions differently. We compete based on product quality, brand recognition and loyalty, service, product innovation, taste, convenience, nutritional value, the ability to identify and satisfy consumer preferences, effectiveness of our digital and other sales and marketing strategies, routes to market and distribution networks, promotional activities and price. Our advantaged global footprint, operating scale and portfolio of brands have all significantly contributed to building our market-leading positions across most of the product categories in which we sell. To grow and maintain our market positions, we focus on meeting consumer needs and preferences through a local-first commercial focus, new digital and other
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sales and marketing initiatives, product innovation and high standards of product quality. We also continue to optimize our manufacturing and supply chain networks and invest in our brands through ongoing research and development, advertising, marketing and consumer promotions.

Raw Materials and Packaging

We purchase and use large quantities of commodities, including cocoa, dairy, wheat, edible oils, sugar and other sweeteners, flavoring agents and nuts. In addition, we purchase and use significant quantities of packaging materials to package our products and natural gas, fuels and electricity for our factories and warehouses. We monitor worldwide supply, commodity cost and currency trends so we can sustainably and cost-effectively secure ingredients, packaging and fuel required for production.

A number of external factors such as the current macroeconomic environment, including global inflation and the effects of geopolitical uncertainty, climate and weather conditions, commodity, transportation and labor market conditions, supply chain disruptions, currency fluctuations and the effects of governmental agricultural or other programs affect the cost and availability of raw materials and agricultural materials used in our products. We address higher commodity costs and currency impacts primarily through hedging, higher pricing and manufacturing and overhead cost control. We use hedging techniques to limit the impact of fluctuations in the cost of our principal raw materials; however, we may not be able to fully hedge against commodity cost changes, and our hedging strategies may not protect us from increases in specific raw material costs.

For additional information, refer to Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Commodity Trends.

Human Capital

We believe the strength of our workforce is one of the significant contributors to our success as a global company that leads with purpose. All our employees contribute to our success and help us drive strong financial performance. Attracting, developing and retaining global talent with the right skills to drive our business is central to our purpose, mission and long-term growth strategy.

Workforce Profile: At December 31, 2023, we had approximately 91,000 employees. At December 31, 2023, we had approximately 12,000 U.S. employees and approximately 79,000 employees outside the United States, with employees represented by labor unions or workers’ councils representing approximately 21% of our U.S. employees and approximately 55% of our employees outside the United States.

Workplace Safety and Wellness: We promote a strong culture of safety and prioritize keeping all our employees, contractors and visitors safe. To accomplish this, we employ comprehensive health, safety and environment management policies and standards throughout the organization. In addition, we strive to continuously improve our work processes, tools and metrics to mitigate and prevent workplace injuries and enhance safety.

We remain committed to providing a modern and flexible approach to how and where we work. Our hybrid work model allows our office-based employees to engage with colleagues, customers and suppliers in-person on a regular basis while also leveraging innovative technology to optimize collaboration across geographically dispersed teams.

Workforce Inclusion & Diversity:
We believe that a diverse workforce with a range of experiences and perspectives is a significant driver of sustainable innovation and growth. We continue to be focused on creating an inclusive culture for employees, providing equity of opportunity through our development programs and policies. We include diversity and other human capital metrics as a part of the strategic scorecard within our annual incentive plan for our CEO and other senior leaders. This scorecard is used consistently across our company at both the corporate and region level.
As a result of these efforts, at the end of 2023, women held 42% of global management roles (defined as Director and above) and 42% of executive leadership roles (defined as the Management Leadership Team plus one level below). In the United States, People of Color held approximately 36% of management roles (defined as Director and above), and Black employees held 6.3% of management roles at the end of 2023.

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Talent Management and Development: Maintaining a robust pipeline of talent is crucial to our ongoing success and is a key aspect of succession planning efforts across the organization. Our leadership and people teams are responsible for attracting and retaining top talent by facilitating an environment where employees feel supported and encouraged in their professional and personal development.

Specifically, we review strategic positions regularly and identify potential internal candidates to fill those roles, evaluating job skill sets to identify competency gaps and creating developmental plans to facilitate employee professional growth. We include metrics related to the rate at which we fill positions with internal talent as part of the strategic scorecard within our annual incentive plan for our CEO and senior leaders, supporting a healthy balance between development of internal talent and infusion of new capabilities to enhance our teams.

We invest in our employees through training and development programs, on the job experiences, coaching, as well as tuition reimbursement for a majority of our employees in the United States to promote continued professional growth. We provide technical and leadership programs across the organization that enable colleagues to grow skills and capabilities to become more successful. We also have dedicated talent programs that support and accelerate leadership development and strengthen our succession plans. We also expanded and increased global participation in our Talent Marketplace, a development solution that helps connect employees to short-term ‘gig’ opportunities. Additionally, coaching, mentoring and team-based development solutions are provided to colleagues across all levels to support leadership, team effectiveness and performance.

Culture and Employee Engagement: We believe a culture where employees feel heard and managers take action is key to building a highly-engaged workforce that can deliver sustainable business growth. We conduct confidential engagement surveys of our global workforce annually that are administered and analyzed by an independent third party. Aggregate survey results include external benchmark comparisons and are reviewed by executive officers and the Board of Directors. Based on the results, we create action plans at global, regional, functional and managerial levels. By acting on results both at an aggregate enterprise level and a department/business/work group level, we have been able to enhance our culture and improve our overall engagement.

Total Rewards: As part of our total rewards philosophy, we offer competitive compensation and benefits to attract and retain top talent. Our compensation programs are designed to reinforce our growth agenda and talent strategy as well as drive a strong connection between the contributions of our employees and their pay. We believe the structure of our compensation packages provides the appropriate incentives to attract, retain and motivate our employees. Further, to foster a strong sense of ownership and align the interests of employees with shareholders, we grant stock-based incentives to most senior-level employees.

We also continue to evolve our programs to meet our employees’ health and wellness needs. We provide access to medical and welfare benefits and offer programs to all employees that support work-life balance, including paid parental leave, as well as financial, physical and mental health resources, including employee assistance programs to reach all global colleagues.

We are committed to equal pay for equal work, regardless of gender, race, ethnicity or other personal characteristics. To deliver on that commitment, we benchmark and set pay ranges based on market data and consider various factors such as an employee’s role and experience, job location and performance. We also regularly review our compensation practices to promote fair and equitable pay.

With the support of an independent third-party expert in this field, we conduct global pay equity reviews for salaried employees based on gender and race (as permitted by local country law). Our last global analysis in 2023 encompassed 83 countries and over 34,000 employees. From this analysis, our pay gap between male and female employees was less than 1%. In the United States, we also review pay for salaried employees in the same pay grade by race/ethnicity (Asian, Black and Hispanic). The 2023 independent analysis found no systemic issues and no negative pay gap between non-white and white employees.

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Sustainability and Mindful Snacking

Snacking Made Right is the lens through which we determine our ESG priorities to deliver on our mission of leading the future of snacking by offering the right snack, for the right moment, made the right way. We have a clear strategic approach to making snacking right, so we can drive innovative, more sustainable business growth.

We focus in key areas where we believe we can deliver greater long-term positive impact. Our strategy and goals in these key focus areas are central to supporting our growth around the world and underpinned by our focus on promoting a culture of safety, quality, inclusivity and equity. Our goals include more sustainable sourcing of key ingredients, reducing our environmental footprint, promoting the rights of people across our value chain, and evolving our portfolio to offer a broader range of high-quality snacks addressing consumer needs while encouraging consumers to snack mindfully. In 2023, we made progress against these goals, such as expanding our signature raw material sourcing programs, submitting a time-bound roadmap against our 2050 Net Zero goal for validation to the Science Based Targets Initiative and investing in renewable energy sources in several of our owned manufacturing facilities across the world.

The Governance, Membership and Sustainability Committee of our Board of Directors oversees our ESG policies and programs related to corporate citizenship, social responsibility, and public policy issues significant to us such as sustainability and environmental responsibility; food labeling, marketing and packaging; philanthropic and political activities and contributions; and Board of Directors’ ESG education and capabilities. The People and Compensation Committee of our Board of Directors oversees our diversity, equity and inclusion priorities, as well as workplace safety and employee wellness, pay equity, talent sourcing strategies, talent management and development programs and ESG KPIs for incentive plans. The Audit Committee of our Board of Directors oversees our safety priorities, goals and performance, as well as our ESG-related disclosure in SEC filings, including controls and assurance. Our ESG goals are part of our risk and strategic planning processes and are also embedded across our organization and within our annual incentive compensation program for our leadership. Business leadership teams and our Board of Directors regularly review progress toward these programs and priorities.

We discuss our ESG goals and programs in detail in our annual Snacking Made Right report available on our website. We also publish an ESG disclosure data sheet and are aligned with the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (“SASB”) and Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (“TCFD”) reporting frameworks. We also provide our annual CDP Climate Change, Water Security and Forests disclosure.

Intellectual Property

Our intellectual property rights (including trademarks, patents, copyrights, registered designs, proprietary trade secrets, recipes, technology and know-how) are material to our business.

We own numerous trademarks and patents in many countries around the world. Depending on the country, trademarks remain valid for as long as they are in use or their registration status is maintained. Trademark registrations generally are renewable for fixed terms. We also have patents for a number of current and potential products. Our patents cover inventions ranging from packaging techniques to processes relating to specific products and to the products themselves. Our issued patents extend for varying periods according to the date of patent application filing or grant and the legal term of patents in the various countries where patent protection is obtained. The actual protection afforded by a patent, which can vary from country to country, depends upon the type of patent, the scope of its coverage as determined by the patent office or courts in the country, and the availability of legal remedies in the country. While our patent portfolio is material to our business, the loss of one patent or a group of related patents would not have a material adverse effect on our business.

From time to time, we grant third parties licenses to use one or more of our trademarks, patents and/or proprietary trade secrets in connection with the manufacture, sale or distribution of third-party products. Similarly, we sell some products under brands, patents and/or proprietary trade secrets we license from third parties. In our agreement with Kraft Foods Group, Inc. (which is now part of The Kraft Heinz Company), we each granted the other party various licenses to use certain of our and their respective intellectual property rights in named jurisdictions following the spin-off of our North American grocery business in 2012.


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Regulation

Our food products and ingredients are subject to local, national and multinational regulations related to labeling, health and nutrition claims, packaging, pricing, marketing and advertising, and related areas. In addition, various jurisdictions regulate our operations by licensing and inspecting our manufacturing plants and facilities, enforcing standards for select food products, grading food products, and regulating trade practices related to the sale and pricing of our food products. Many of the food commodities we use in our operations are subject to government agricultural policy and intervention. These policies have substantial effects on prices and supplies and are subject to periodic governmental and administrative review. In addition, increased attention to environmental and social issues in industry supply chains has led to developing different types of regulation in many countries. The lack of a harmonized approach can lead to uneven scrutiny or enforcement, which can impact our operations.

Examples of laws and regulations that affect our business include workplace safety regulations; selective food taxes; data privacy; labeling requirements such as front-of-pack labeling based on nutrient profiles or environmental claims; sales or media and marketing restrictions such as those on promotions or advertising products with specified nutrient profiles on certain channels or platforms or during certain hours of the day; sanctions on sales or sourcing of raw materials; cross-border trade concessions or border barriers; corporate tax policies of the United States and other countries; and packaging taxes. In addition, over 25 countries in the European Union have implemented extended producer responsibility (“EPR”) policies as part of national packaging waste policies that make manufacturers responsible for the cost of recycling food and beverage packaging after consumers use it. These range from mandatory regulations to voluntary agreements between government and industry to voluntary industry initiatives. EPR policies are being implemented or contemplated in other jurisdictions around the world, including India, Vietnam and certain states in the United States. Single-use plastic bans and other plastic taxes are being considered in Europe as well as countries including Indonesia and the Philippines.

Throughout the countries in which we do business, we are subject to local, national and multinational environmental laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment. We have programs across our business units designed to meet applicable environmental compliance requirements. In the United States, the laws and regulations include the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. We are also subject to legislation designed to reduce emissions from greenhouse gases, and many countries are considering introducing carbon taxes that could increase our production costs or those of our suppliers.

We continue to monitor developments in laws and regulations. Also refer to Item 1A, Risk Factors for additional information.


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Information about our Executive Officers

The following are our executive officers as of February 2, 2024:
NameAgeTitle
Dirk Van de Put63Chief Executive Officer
Luca Zaramella54Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Vinzenz P. Gruber58Executive Vice President and President, Europe
Deepak D. Iyer
56Executive Vice President and President, Asia Pacific, Middle East and Africa
Stephanie Lilak
57
Executive Vice President and Chief People Officer
Mariano C. Lozano57Executive Vice President and President, Latin America
Daniel E. Ramos50Executive Vice President, Chief Research and Development Officer
Laura Stein62
Executive Vice President, Corporate & Legal Affairs, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary
Gustavo C. Valle59Executive Vice President and President, North America

Mr. Van de Put became Chief Executive Officer and a director in November 2017 and became Chairman of the Board of Directors in April 2018. He formerly served as President and Chief Executive Officer of McCain Foods Limited, a multinational frozen food provider, from July 2011 to November 2017 and as its Chief Operating Officer from May 2010 to July 2011. Mr. Van de Put served as President and Chief Executive Officer, Global Over-the-Counter, Consumer Health Division of Novartis AG, a global healthcare company, from 2009 to 2010. Prior to that, he worked for 24 years in a variety of leadership positions for several global food and beverage providers, including Danone SA, The Coca-Cola Company and Mars, Incorporated.

Mr. Zaramella became Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer in August 2018. He previously served as Senior Vice President Corporate Finance, CFO Commercial and Treasurer from June 2016 to July 2018. He also served as Interim Lead Finance North America from April to November 2017. Prior to that, he served as Senior Vice President and Corporate Controller from December 2014 to August 2016 and Senior Vice President, Finance of Mondelēz Europe from October 2011 to November 2014. Mr. Zaramella joined Mondelēz International in 1996.

Mr. Gruber became Executive Vice President and President, Europe in January 2019. He previously served as President, Western Europe from October 2016 to December 2018 and President, Chocolate, Europe from August 2011 to September 2016. Mr. Gruber was formerly employed by Mondelēz International, in various capacities, from 1989 until 2000 and resumed his employment in September 2007.

Mr. Iyer became Executive Vice President and President, Asia Pacific, Middle East and Africa in June 2023. He previously served as President India from August 2016 to June 2023. Prior to that, Mr. Iyer held various leadership positions of increasing responsibility at PepsiCo, Wrigley India Pvt Ltd and Bharti AXA General Insurance Company, India. Mr. Iyer joined Mondelēz International in 2016.

Ms. Lilak became Executive Vice President and Chief People Officer in January 2024. She formerly served as the Chief People Officer of Bumble Inc., a social networking company, from November 2021 to January 2023. Previously, Ms. Lilak was Senior Vice President, Chief Human Resources Officer at Dunkin’ Brands Group Inc., a multinational coffee and doughnut company, from July 2019 to November 2021. Prior to Dunkin’ Brands, Ms. Lilak spent 23 years with General Mills Inc., a global consumer foods manufacturer and marketer, in roles of increasing responsibility. She served as Vice President, Human Resources for the North America Retail Segment from January 2016 to July 2019.

Mr. Lozano became Executive Vice President and President, Latin America in May 2022. He previously served as CEO of Danone North America, a business unit of Danone, a global food and beverage company, from January 2014 until April 2017 and CEO Danone North America from September 2017 until December 2022. Mr. Lozano spent more than 24 years at Danone in various leadership roles across Latin America including President, Danone Brazil.

Mr. Ramos became Chief Research & Development Officer in November 2022. Before joining Mondelēz International, Mr. Ramos was Senior Vice President of Global Packaging at The Estée Lauder Companies, a
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manufacturer and marketer of quality skin care, makeup, fragrance and hair care products, from January 2021 to November 2022, and served as the Chief Scientific Officer at Coty Inc., a multinational beauty company and developer of fragrance, color cosmetics, and skin and body care, from September 2017 to January 2021. Mr. Ramos has worked in Research and Development for over 20 years.

Ms. Stein became Executive Vice President, Corporate & Legal Affairs, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary in September 2023 and was Executive Vice President, Corporate & Legal Affairs and General Counsel from January 2021 until September 2023. Before joining Mondelēz International, Ms. Stein spent 15 years at The Clorox Company, a multinational manufacturer and marketer of consumer and professional products, most recently as Executive Vice President – General Counsel and Corporate Affairs from February 2016 to December 2020. She also served as Executive Vice President – General Counsel from February 2015 to February 2016 and as Senior Vice President – General Counsel from January 2005 to February 2015.

Mr. Valle became Executive Vice President and President, North America in March 2022 and was Executive Vice President and President, Latin American from February 2020 to February 2022. Before joining Mondelēz International, Mr. Valle served as Chief Executive Officer of Axia Plus, LLC, a management consulting firm, from February 2018 to January 2020. Prior to that he spent more than 20 years at Groupe Danone SA, a multinational provider of packaged water, dairy and baby food products, in a variety of leadership positions, most recently as Executive Vice President, Dairy Division Worldwide, from January 2015 to January 2018, and Vice President Dairy Division Europe, from January 2014 until December 2014.

Ethics and Governance

We have adopted the Mondelēz International Code of Conduct, which qualifies as a code of ethics under Item 406 of Regulation S-K. The code applies to all of our employees, including our principal executive officer, principal financial officer, principal accounting officer or controller, and persons performing similar functions. Our code of ethics is available free of charge on our web site at www.mondelezinternational.com/Investors/Corporate-Governance and will be provided free of charge to any shareholder submitting a written request to: Corporate Secretary, Mondelēz International, Inc., 905 West Fulton Market, Suite 200, Chicago, IL 60607. We will disclose any waiver we grant to an executive officer or director under our code of ethics, or certain amendments to the code of ethics, on our web site at www.mondelezinternational.com/Investors/Corporate-Governance.

In addition, we have adopted Corporate Governance Guidelines, charters for each of the Board’s four standing committees and the Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for Non-Employee Directors. All of these materials are available on our web site at www.mondelezinternational.com/Investors/Corporate-Governance and will be provided free of charge to any shareholder requesting a copy by writing to: Corporate Secretary, Mondelēz International, Inc., 905 West Fulton Market, Suite 200, Chicago, IL 60607.

Available Information
Our Internet address is www.mondelezinternational.com. Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), are available free of charge as soon as possible after we electronically file them with, or furnish them to, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). You can access our filings with the SEC by visiting www.sec.gov or our website: ir.mondelezinternational.com/sec-filings. The information on our web site is not, and shall not be deemed to be, a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or incorporated into any other filings we make with the SEC.













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Item 1A. Risk Factors.

You should carefully read the following discussion of significant factors, events and uncertainties when evaluating our business and the forward-looking information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The events and consequences discussed in these risk factors could materially and adversely affect our business, operating results, liquidity and financial condition. While we believe we have identified and discussed below the key risk factors affecting our business, these risk factors do not identify all the risks we face, and there may be additional risks and uncertainties that we do not presently know or that we do not currently believe to be significant that may have a material adverse effect on our business, performance or financial condition in the future.

Strategic and Operational Risks

Commodity and other input prices are volatile and may increase or decrease significantly or availability of commodities may become constrained.

We purchase and use large quantities of commodities, including cocoa, dairy, wheat, edible oils, sugar and other sweeteners, flavoring agents and nuts. In addition, we purchase and use significant quantities of product packaging materials, natural gas, fuel and electricity for our factories and warehouses, and we also incur expenses in connection with labor and the transportation and delivery of our products. Costs of raw materials, energy and other supplies and services are volatile and fluctuate due to conditions that are difficult to predict. These conditions include global competition for resources; currency fluctuations; geopolitical conditions or conflicts (including the ongoing war in Ukraine and international sanctions imposed on Russia for its invasion of Ukraine, developments in the Middle East and rising tensions between China and Taiwan); inflationary pressures related to domestic and global economic conditions or supply chain issues; transportation and labor disruptions; tariffs or other trade barriers; government intervention to introduce living income premiums or similar requirements such as those announced in 2019 in two of the main cocoa-growing countries; changes in environmental or trade policy and regulations, alternative energy and agricultural programs; severe weather; agricultural productivity; crop disease or pests; water risk; health pandemics; forest fires and other natural disasters; acts of terrorism; cybersecurity incidents; supplier capacity; and consumer or industrial demand. Many of these conditions are or could be exacerbated or worsened by climate change. Increased government intervention and consumer or activist responses caused by increased focus on climate change, deforestation, water, plastic waste, animal welfare and human rights concerns and other risks associated with the global food system could adversely affect our or our suppliers’ reputation and business and our ability to procure the materials we need to operate our business. Some commodities are grown by smallholder farmers who might not be able to invest to increase productivity or adapt to changing conditions. Our work to monitor our exposure to commodity prices and hedge against input price increases cannot fully protect us from changes in commodity costs due to factors like market illiquidity, specific local regulations and downstream costs. Thus, our hedging strategies have not always protected and will not in the future always protect us from increases in specific raw material costs. Continued volatility in the prices of commodities and other supplies we purchase or changes in the types of commodities we purchase as we continue to evolve our product and packaging portfolio could increase or decrease the costs of our products, and our profitability could suffer as a result. Moreover, increases in the price of our products, including increases to cover inflation and higher input, packaging and transportation costs, may result in lower sales volumes or customer delistings, while decreases in input costs could require us to lower our prices and thereby affect our revenues, profits or margins. Likewise, constraints in the supply or availability of key commodities and necessary services like transportation, such as we experienced across our business, particularly in the United States and United Kingdom, may limit our ability to grow our net revenues and earnings. If our mitigation activities are not effective, if we are unable to price to cover increased costs (including if we are delayed in our ability to raise prices or unable to raise the prices of our products enough to keep up with the rate of inflation), if we must reduce our prices, if increased prices affect demand for our products (including if consumers forego purchasing certain of our products or switch to “private label” or lower-priced product offerings), or if we are limited by supply or distribution constraints, our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and stock price can be materially adversely affected.


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We are subject to risks from operating globally.

We are a global company and generated 73.4% of our 2023 net revenues, 73.6% of our 2022 net revenues and 75.1% of our 2021 net revenues outside the United States. We manufacture and market our products in over 150 countries and have operations in approximately 80 countries. Therefore, we are subject to risks inherent in global operations. Those risks include: 

changing macroeconomic conditions in our markets, including as a result of inflation (and related monetary policy actions by governments in response to inflation), volatile commodity prices and increases in the cost of raw and packaging materials, labor, energy and transportation;
compliance with U.S. laws affecting operations outside of the United States, including anti-bribery laws such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”);
the imposition of increased or new tariffs, sanctions, export controls, quotas, trade barriers, price floors or similar restrictions on our sales or key commodities like cocoa, potential changes in U.S. trade programs and trade relations with other countries, or regulations, taxes or policies that might negatively affect our sales or profitability;
compliance with antitrust and competition laws, trade laws, data privacy laws, anti-bribery laws, human rights laws and a variety of other local, national and multinational regulations and laws in multiple regimes;
currency devaluations or fluctuations in currency values, including in developed and emerging markets. This includes events like applying highly inflationary accounting as we did for our Argentinean subsidiaries beginning in July 2018 and for Türkiye beginning in April 2022;
changes in capital controls, including currency exchange controls, government currency policies or other limits on our ability to import raw materials or finished products into various countries or repatriate cash from outside the United States;
increased sovereign risk, such as defaults by or deterioration in the economies and credit ratings of governments, particularly in emerging markets;
changes or inconsistencies in local regulations and laws, the uncertainty of enforcement of remedies in non-U.S. jurisdictions, and foreign ownership restrictions and the potential for nationalization or expropriation of property or other resources;
varying abilities to enforce intellectual property and contractual rights;
discriminatory or conflicting fiscal policies;
greater risk of uncollectible accounts and longer collection cycles; and
design, implementation and use of effective control environment processes across our diverse operations and employee base.

In addition, increased political and economic changes or volatility, geopolitical regional conflicts, terrorist activity, political unrest, civil strife, acts of war, government shutdowns, travel or immigration restrictions, tariffs and other trade restrictions, public health risks or pandemics, energy policy or restrictions, public corruption, expropriation and other economic or political uncertainties, including inaccuracies in our assumptions about these factors, could interrupt and negatively affect our business operations or customer demand. For example, the ongoing developments in the Middle East could impact demand for our products or result in increased supply chain costs or other cost impacts. High unemployment or the slowdown in economic growth in some markets could constrain consumer spending. Declining consumer purchasing power could result in loss of market share and adversely impact our profitability. The nature and degree of the various risks we face can also differ significantly among our regions and businesses.

All of these factors could result in increased costs or decreased revenues and could materially and adversely affect our product sales, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, stock price, and our relationships with customers, suppliers and employees in the short- or long-term.

The war in Ukraine has impacted and could continue to impact our business operations, financial performance and results of operations.

The war in Ukraine has impacted and could continue to impact our business operations, financial performance and results of operations (as discussed below in Recent Developments and Significant Items Affecting Comparability – War in Ukraine under Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations). The scope and duration of the war in Ukraine is uncertain and rapidly changing, and we are unable to predict the full extent to which the war in Ukraine will impact our business operations, financial performance, results of operations and stock price in the future. We have discontinued new capital investments and suspended our advertising
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spending in Russia. As the business and geopolitical environment continues to change, our operations and activity in Russia, which accounted for 2.9% of 2023 consolidated net revenues, or Ukraine, which accounted for 0.4% of 2023 consolidated net revenues, may decline or be further scaled back. International sanctions, export controls and other measures, including restrictions on the transfer of funds to and from Russia, that have been imposed on Russian entities make it more difficult to operate in Russia, and failure to comply with applicable sanctions and measures could subject us to regulatory penalties and reputational risk. The war could also result in the temporary or permanent loss of assets or our ability to conduct business operations in Russia, and our Russian assets may be partially or fully impaired in future periods, or our business operations terminated, based on actions taken by Russia, other parties or us. In addition, our operations may be subject to increased disruptions to our information systems, including through network failures, malicious or disruptive software or cyberattacks by hackers, criminal groups or nation-state organizations. There is a possibility of loss of life and physical damage and destruction of property. We may not be able to operate in certain areas due to damage and safety concerns. We might also face questions or negative scrutiny from stakeholders about our operations in Russia despite our role as a food company and our public statements about Ukraine and Russia.

The war in Ukraine has continued to result in worldwide geopolitical and macroeconomic uncertainty. The war continues to disrupt commodity markets, including for wheat, energy and energy-related commodities, and continues to contribute to supply chain disruption and inflation. Other ongoing consequences of the war have included increased volatility of input prices, including for packaging materials, energy, commodities, other raw materials, labor and transportation; adverse changes in international trade policies and relations; increased exposure to foreign currency fluctuations, including volatility of the Russian ruble; constraints, volatility or disruptions in the credit and capital markets; increased costs to ensure compliance with global and local laws and regulations; difficulty protecting and enforcing our intellectual property rights; and heightened risk to employee safety including health and safety risks related to securing and maintaining facilities. We expect continued volatility with respect to commodity and other input prices, and our hedging activities might not sufficiently offset this volatility.

These and other impacts of the war in Ukraine could have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in the risk factors presented in this filing, including but not limited to those relating to our reputation, brands, product sales, sanctions, trade relations in countries in which we operate, input price inflation and volatility, results of operations and financial condition. We might not be able to predict or respond to all impacts on a timely basis to prevent near- or long-term adverse impacts to our results. The ultimate impact of these disruptions also depends on events beyond our knowledge or control, including the scope and duration of the war and actions taken by parties other than us to respond to them. Any of these disruptions could have a negative impact on our business operations, financial performance, results of operations and stock price, and this impact could be material. Additionally, the war in Ukraine, or related developments in Russia, Europe or elsewhere, may also materially adversely affect our operating results and financial position in a manner that is not currently known to us or that we do not currently consider to be a significant risk.

We operate in a highly competitive industry where we face risks related to the execution of our strategy as well as our ability or willingness to respond, timely or otherwise, to channel shifts, pricing and other competitive pressures.

The food and snacking industry is highly competitive. Our principal competitors are food, snack and beverage companies that operate globally, regionally and locally, and, in many markets, include retailers with their own branded and private label products. Failure to effectively respond to actions, innovations or other challenges from our competitors could adversely affect our business.

Competitor and customer pressures require that we timely and effectively respond to changes in relevant markets, including changes to distribution channels and technological developments. These pressures could affect our prices, including our ability to price in response to commodity and other cost increases. Failure to effectively and timely assess new or developing trends, technological advancements (including advancements such as artificial intelligence, machine learnings and augmented reality, which may become critical in understanding consumer preferences in the future) or changes in distribution methods and set proper pricing, including as a result of inflation or weak economic conditions or recessions, or effective trade incentives could negatively impact availability of or demand for our products, our operating results, achievement of our strategic and financial goals and our ability to capitalize on new revenue or value-producing opportunities. The rapid growth of some channels, such as discounters as well as digital commerce which has expanded significantly following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, may impact our current operations or strategies more quickly than we planned for, create consumer price
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deflation, alter the buying behavior of consumers or disrupt our retail customer relationships. We may need to increase or reallocate spending on existing and new distribution channels and technologies, marketing, advertising and new product innovation to maintain or increase revenues, market share and brand significance. These expenditures may not be successful, including those related to our digital commerce and other technology-focused efforts, and might not result in trade and consumer acceptance of our efforts, which could materially and adversely affect our product sales, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. We will be disadvantaged if we are not able to effectively leverage developing online channels such as direct-to-consumer and electronic business-to-business commerce. New distribution channels, as well as growing opportunities to utilize external manufacturers, lower the barriers to entry and allow smaller competitors to gain market share more effectively. Additionally, if we adjust pricing but cannot maintain or increase sales volumes, or our labor or other costs increase but we cannot increase prices to offset those changes, our financial condition and results of operations will suffer.

Further, our ability to compete may be limited by an inability to secure new retailers or maintain or add shelf and/or retail space for our products. There can be no assurance that retailers will provide sufficient, or any, shelf space, nor that online retailers will provide online access to, or adequate product visibility on, their platform. Unattractive placement or pricing may put our products at a disadvantage compared to those of our competitors. Even if we obtain shelf space or preferable shelf placement, our new and existing products may fail to achieve the sales or pricing expectations set by our retailers, potentially causing these retailers to remove our products from their shelves.

During 2023, we continued to operate under our strategy to drive long-term growth by focusing on four strategic priorities: accelerating consumer-centric growth, driving operational excellence, creating a winning growth culture and scaling sustainable snacking. If our strategy is not effective, we fail to achieve our goals and objectives or identify or prioritize the areas most important to achieving our goals, or we fail to effectively operate under our strategy in a way that minimizes disruptions to our business, it could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and stock price.

Promoting and protecting our reputation and brand image is essential to our business success.

Our success depends on our ability to maintain and enhance our brands, expand to new geographies and new distribution platforms such as digital commerce, and evolve our portfolio with new product offerings that meet consumer needs and expectations.

We seek to strengthen our brands through investments in our product quality, product renovation, innovation and marketing investments, including consumer-relevant advertising, digital communication and consumer promotions. Actual or perceived failure to effectively address the continuing global focus on well-being, including changing consumer acceptance of certain ingredients, industrial manufacturing and processing, nutritional expectations of our products, the sustainability of our ingredients, our supply chain (including human rights and animal welfare issues) and our packaging (including plastic packaging and its ability to be recycled and other environmental impacts) could adversely affect our brands. Increased negative attention from the media, academics and online influencers, governments, shareholders and other stakeholders in these areas as well as on the role of food marketing, our response to political and social issues or catastrophic events, and other environmental, social, human capital or governance practices, including our diversity, equity and inclusion initiatives, could adversely affect our brand image. Undue caution or our failure to react timely in addressing these challenges and trends could weaken our competitive position. Such pressures could also lead to stricter regulations, industry self-regulation that is unevenly adopted among companies, increased transparency in public disclosures, and increased focus on food and snacking marketing and labeling practices. Increasing and disparate legal or regulatory restrictions on our labeling, advertising and consumer promotions, or our response to those restrictions, could limit our efforts to maintain, extend and expand our brands. This includes regulations such as front-of-pack labeling and selective food taxes in multiple jurisdictions as well as age-based restrictions on sales of products with certain nutritional profiles enacted in some states in Mexico. In the United Kingdom, a ban on specific types of TV and online advertising of food containing levels of fat, sugar or salt above specified thresholds is expected to go into effect in October 2025, and new measures restricting certain promotions and in-store placement of some of those products recently went into effect. Moreover, adverse publicity, regulatory developments or legal action against us, our employees or our licensees related to product quality and safety, where and how we manufacture our products, environmental risks including climate change, human and workplace rights across our supply chain, labor relations, or antitrust, anti-bribery and anti-corruption compliance could damage our reputation and brand health. Such actions could undermine our customers’ and shareholders’ confidence and reduce demand for our products, even if the regulatory or legal action is unfounded or these matters are immaterial to our operations. Our product sponsorship
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relationships, including those with celebrity spokespersons, influencers or group affiliations, could also subject us to negative publicity.

In addition, our success in maintaining and enhancing our brand image depends on our ability to anticipate change and adapt to a rapidly changing marketing and media environment, including our increasing reliance on established and emerging social media and online platforms, digital and mobile dissemination of marketing and advertising campaigns, targeted marketing and the increasing accessibility and speed of dissemination of information. A variety of legal and regulatory restrictions as well as our own policies and participation in industry self-regulation initiatives limit how and to whom we market our products. These restrictions may limit our brand renovation, innovation, marketing and promotion plans, particularly as social media and the communications environment continue to evolve. The social media platforms we use to market our products may change their marketing rules or algorithms or may fall out of favor with certain consumer groups, and we may fail to effectively adapt our marketing strategies or may decide to no longer utilize certain platforms for marketing. We might also fail to sufficiently evolve our digital marketing efforts to effectively utilize consumer data. Negative posts or comments about Mondelēz International, our brands or our employees on social media or web sites (whether factual or not) or security breaches related to use of our social media accounts and failure to respond effectively to these posts, comments or activities could damage our reputation and brand image across the various regions in which we operate. Placement of our advertisements in social media may also result in damage to our brands if the media itself experiences negative publicity. Our brands may be associated with or appear alongside harmful content before these platforms or our own social media monitoring can detect this risk to our brand. In addition, we might fail to invest sufficiently in maintaining, extending and expanding our brands, our marketing efforts might not achieve desired results and we might be required to recognize impairment charges on our brands or related intangible assets or goodwill. Third parties may sell counterfeit or imitation versions of our products that are inferior or pose safety risks. When consumers confuse these counterfeit products for our products or have a bad experience with the counterfeit brand, they might refrain from purchasing our brands in the future, which could harm our brand image and sales. Third parties might also improperly use our brands as part of phishing or other scams, which could negatively affect our brand image. Failure to successfully maintain and enhance our reputation and brand health could materially and adversely affect our company and product brands as well as our product sales, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and stock price.

We must correctly predict, identify, interpret and meet changes in consumer preferences and demand and offer new and improved products that meet those changes.

Consumer preferences for food and snacking products change continually. Our success depends on our ability to predict, identify, interpret and meet the tastes, dietary habits, packaging, sales channel and other preferences of consumers around the world and to offer products that appeal to these preferences in the places and ways consumers want to shop. There may be further shifts in the relative size of shopping channels in addition to the increasing role of digital commerce for consumers. Our success relies upon managing this complexity to promote and bring our products to consumers effectively. Weak economic conditions, recessions, inflation, equity market volatility or other factors, such as global or local pandemics, severe or unusual weather events, and our response to political and social issues or catastrophic events, may affect consumer preferences and demand in ways that are hard to predict. In connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, rapid changes in lifestyles and consumption patterns were accompanied by increased demand for biscuits and decreased demand for gum. Failure to offer and deliver products that appeal to consumers or to correctly judge consumer demand for our products will impact our ability to meet our growth targets, and our sales and market share could decrease and our profitability could suffer.

We must distinguish between short-term fads and trends and long-term changes in consumer preferences. Our sales can be adversely affected when we do not accurately predict which shifts in consumer preferences or category trends will be long-term or we fail to introduce new and improved products to satisfy changing preferences. In addition, because of our varied and geographically diverse consumer base, we must be responsive to local consumer needs, including with respect to when and how consumers snack and their desire for premium or value offerings. We must also provide an array of products that satisfy the broad spectrum of consumer preferences and use marketing and advertising effectively to reach consumers at the right time with the right message. Increasing and disparate legal or regulatory restrictions on our labeling, advertising and consumer promotions, or our response to those restrictions, could limit our efforts to offer and deliver products that appeal to consumers. Demand for our products could decrease and our profitability could suffer if we fail to expand our product offerings successfully across product categories, rapidly develop products in faster growing and more profitable categories or reach consumers in efficient and effective ways leveraging data and analytics.

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Negative perceptions concerning the health, environmental and social implications of certain food products, ingredients, packaging materials, and sourcing or production methods could influence consumer preferences and acceptance of some of our products and marketing programs. For example, consumers have increasingly focused on well-being, including reducing sodium and added sugar consumption or using weight-loss drugs to reduce consumption overall or change consumption patterns, as well as the source and authenticity of ingredients in the foods they consume. Continuing to focus on and expand our well-being offerings while refining the ingredient and nutrition profiles of existing products is important to our growth, as is maintaining focus on ethical sourcing and supply chain management opportunities to address evolving consumer preferences. In addition, consumer preferences differ by region, and we must monitor and adjust our use of ingredients and other activities to respond to these regional preferences. We might be unsuccessful in our efforts to effectively respond to changing consumer preferences and social expectations. Continued negative perceptions or failure to satisfy consumer preferences could materially and adversely affect our reputation, brands, product sales, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and stock price.

Our operations in certain emerging markets expose us to political, economic and regulatory risks.

Our growth strategy depends in part on our ability to expand our operations in emerging markets, including among others Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Argentina, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Southeast Asia. However, some emerging markets have greater political, economic and currency volatility and greater vulnerability to infrastructure and labor disruptions than more established markets. In many countries, particularly those with emerging economies, engaging in business practices prohibited by laws and regulations with extraterritorial reach, such as the FCPA and the U.K. Bribery Act, or local anti-bribery laws may be more common. These laws generally prohibit companies and their employees, contractors or agents from making improper payments to government officials, including in connection with obtaining permits or engaging in other actions necessary to do business. Failure to comply with these laws could subject us to civil and criminal penalties that could materially and adversely affect our reputation, financial condition, results of operations and stock price.

In addition, competition in emerging markets is increasing as our competitors grow their global operations and low-cost local manufacturers improve and expand their production capacities. Our success in emerging markets is critical to achieving our growth strategy. Failure to successfully increase our business in emerging markets and manage associated political, economic and regulatory risks could adversely affect our product sales, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and stock price.

Our use of information technology and third-party service providers exposes us to cybersecurity breaches and other business disruptions.

We use information technology and third-party service providers to support our global business processes and activities, including supporting critical business operations such as manufacturing and distribution; communicating with our suppliers, customers and employees; maintaining effective accounting processes and financial and disclosure controls; executing mergers and acquisitions and other corporate transactions; conducting research and development activities; meeting regulatory, legal and tax requirements; and executing various digital marketing and consumer promotion activities. Global shared service centers managed by third parties provide an increasing number of services important to conducting our business, including accounting, internal control, human resources and computing functions.

Continuity of business applications and services has been, and may in the future be, disrupted by events such as infection by viruses or malware; other cybersecurity attacks; issues with or errors in systems’ maintenance or security; power outages; hardware or software failures; denial of service attacks; telecommunication failures; natural disasters; terrorist attacks; and other catastrophic occurrences. Our use of new and emerging technologies such as cloud-based services and mobile applications continues to evolve, presenting new and additional risks in managing access to our data, relying on third parties to manage and safeguard data, ensuring access to our systems and availability of third-party systems. In addition, we are experiencing new and more frequent attempts by third parties to gain access to our systems, such as through increased email phishing of our workforce.

We leverage third parties for various technology and business services who may experience cybersecurity breaches, whether from circumvention of security systems, denial-of-service attacks or other cyberattacks such as hacking, phishing attacks, computer viruses, ransomware or malware, cyber extortion, employee or insider error, malfeasance, social engineering, physical breaches or other actions or attempts to exploit vulnerabilities may cause confidential information or Personally Identifiable Information belonging to us or our employees, customers,
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consumers, partners, suppliers, or governmental or regulatory authorities to be misused or breached. These risks could be magnified since the number of employees, contractors and others working outside of offices increased since the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, continued geopolitical turmoil, including the ongoing war in Ukraine, has heightened the risk of cyberattacks. When risks such as these materialize, the need for us to coordinate with various third-party service providers and for third-party service providers to coordinate amongst themselves might increase challenges and costs to resolve related issues. Our information security program includes capabilities designed to evaluate and mitigate cyber risks arising from third-party service providers. Cyber threats to externally-hosted technology and business services are beyond our control. Additionally, new initiatives, such as those related to digital commerce and direct sales, that increase the amount of confidential information that we process and maintain increase our potential exposure to a cybersecurity breach. Furthermore, the rapid evolution and increased adoption of artificial intelligence technologies may intensify our cybersecurity risks. If our controls, disaster recovery and business continuity plans or those of our third-party providers do not effectively respond to or resolve the issues related to any such disruptions in a timely manner, our product sales, financial condition, results of operations and stock price may be materially and adversely affected, and we might experience delays in reporting our financial results, loss of intellectual property and damage to our reputation or brands.

We continue to invest and augment our cybersecurity program and posture with enhanced identity and access management solutions, multi-factor authentication, risk-based access for remote connectivity, privileged access management, network security, backup and disaster recovery, training and awareness, in addition to advance threat protection emanating from sophisticated, persistent and state-sponsored threat actors, including from internet browsing to email, further reducing our attack surface and likelihood of credential thefts and compromise. Further, we have 24/7 security operations, enhancing the monitoring and detection of threats in our environment, including but not limited to the manufacturing environment and operational technologies, as well as adjusting information security controls based on our threat intelligence information. However, security measures cannot provide absolute security or guarantee that we will be successful in preventing or responding to every breach or disruption on a timely basis. Due to the constantly evolving and complex nature of cyber threat actors, we cannot predict the form and impact of any future incident, and the cost and operational expense of implementing, maintaining and enhancing protective measures to guard against increasingly complex and sophisticated cyber threats could increase significantly. Moreover, as cyberattacks increase in frequency and magnitude around the world, we may be unable to obtain cybersecurity insurance in the amounts and on terms we view as appropriate and favorable for our operations.

We transfer data across local, regional, and national borders to conduct our operations, and we are subject to a variety of continuously evolving and developing laws and regulations in numerous jurisdictions regarding privacy, data protection and data security, including those related to the collection, storage, handling, use, disclosure, transfer and security of personal data. Privacy and data protection laws may be interpreted and applied differently from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and may create inconsistent or conflicting requirements. The European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) has greatly increased the jurisdictional reach of E.U. law, added a broad array of requirements for handling personal data including the public disclosure of significant data breaches, and imposes substantial penalties for non-compliance of up to 4% of global annual revenue for the preceding financial year in addition to potential restrictions on data transfer and processing. Laws recently passed in other jurisdictions, such as the Personal Information Protection Law of 2021, enacted in China, and the Digital Personal Data Protection Act of 2023, enacted in India, similarly impose significant regulatory requirements. The California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”) requires greater transparency in handling personal information from consumers by imposing new responsibilities for the handling, disclosure and deletion of personal information for consumers, permits California to assess potentially significant fines for violating CCPA and creates a right for individuals to bring class action suits seeking damages for violations. In addition, similar legislation in Virginia, Colorado, Utah and Connecticut, all of which have gone into effect or will go into effect during 2023, impose transparency and other obligations with respect to personal data of their respective residents and provide residents with similar rights. Our efforts to comply with multijurisdictional privacy and data protection laws and the uncertainty of new laws and regulations will likely increase the complexity of our processes and may impose significant costs and challenges that are likely to increase over time, and we could incur substantial penalties or be subject to litigation related to violation of existing or future data privacy laws and regulations.

We are subject to risks from unanticipated business disruptions.

We manufacture and source products and materials on a global scale. We utilize an interdependent supply chain – a complex network of suppliers and material needs, owned and leased manufacturing locations, external manufacturing partners, distribution networks, shared service delivery centers and information systems that support
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our ability to provide our products to our customers consistently. Factors that are hard to predict or beyond our control, like weather, natural disasters, water and energy availability, supply and commodity shortages, port congestions or delays, transport capacity constraints, terrorism, political unrest or armed hostilities (including the ongoing war in Ukraine and developments in the Middle East), cybersecurity incidents, labor shortages, strikes or work stoppages, operational and/or financial instability of our key suppliers and other vendors or service providers, government shutdowns or health pandemics, including any potential impact of climate change on these factors, could damage or disrupt our operations or those of our suppliers, their suppliers, our external manufacturing partners, distributors or other business partners. Failure to effectively prepare for and respond to disruptions in our operations, for example, by not finding alternative suppliers or replacing capacity at key or sole manufacturing or distribution locations or by not quickly repairing damage to our information, production or supply systems, can cause delays in delivering or the inability to deliver products to our customers, and the quality and safety of our products might be negatively affected. Moreover, disputes with significant customers or suppliers, including disputes regarding pricing or performance, could adversely affect our sales, financial condition, and results of operations. The occurrence of a material or extended disruption may cause us to lose our customers’ or business partners’ confidence or suffer damage to our reputation, and long-term consumer demand for our products could decline. We use insurance to transfer our financial risk related to these exposures, but some of the risks we face are difficult or impossible to insure and the timing of insurance recoveries may not match the timing of the financial loss we incur. We are subject to risk related to operational safety, including risk of fire, explosion or accidental contamination. We could also fail to achieve our strategic objectives due to capability or technology deficiencies related to our ongoing reconfiguration of our supply chain to drive efficiencies and fuel growth. Further, our ability to supply multiple markets with a streamlined manufacturing footprint may be negatively impacted by portfolio complexity, significant changes in trade policies, changes in volume produced and changes to regulatory restrictions or labor-related or other constraints on our ability to adjust production capacity in the markets in which we operate. These events could materially and adversely affect our product sales, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and stock price.

We may not successfully identify, complete or manage strategic transactions.

We regularly evaluate a variety of potential strategic transactions globally, including acquisitions, divestitures, joint ventures, equity method investments and other strategic alliances that could further our strategic business objectives, and acquisitions and joint ventures are an important part of our strategy to increase our exposure to fast-growing snacking segments, fill geographic white spaces and expand into adjacent categories. For example, in 2022 we acquired Chipita, Clif Bar and Ricolino and in 2023, we completed the sale of our developed market gum business in the United States, Canada and Europe and sold our remaining equity investment in Kuerig Dr Pepper Inc. Such transactions and investments present significant challenges and risks. We may not successfully identify potential strategic transactions to pursue, may not have counterparties willing to transact with us, or we may not successfully identify or manage the risks presented by these strategic transactions, or complete such transactions. Our success depends, in part, upon our ability to identify suitable transactions; negotiate favorable contractual terms; comply with applicable regulations and receive necessary consents, clearances and approvals (including regulatory and antitrust clearances and approvals that may face increased scrutiny); integrate or separate businesses; manage or achieve performance of ESG goals and initiatives; realize the full extent of the benefits, cost savings or synergies presented by strategic transactions; offset loss of revenue associated with divested brands or businesses; effectively implement control environment processes; minimize adverse effects on existing business relationships with suppliers and customers; achieve accurate estimates of fair value; minimize potential loss of customers or key employees; and minimize indemnities and potential disputes with buyers, sellers and strategic partners. In addition, execution or oversight of strategic transactions may result in the diversion of management attention from our existing business and may present financial, managerial and operational risks.

With respect to acquisitions and joint ventures in particular, we are also exposed to potential risks based on our ability to conform standards, controls, policies and procedures, and business cultures; consolidate and streamline operations and infrastructures; identify and eliminate, as appropriate, redundant and underperforming operations and assets; manage inefficiencies associated with the integration of operations; and coordinate timely and ongoing compliance with applicable laws, including antitrust and competition, anti-bribery and corruption and import/export laws. Equity investments such as our investments in JDE Peet’s N.V. joint venture and other strategic alliances pose additional risks, as we could share ownership in both public and private companies and in some cases management responsibilities with one or more other parties whose objectives for the alliance may diverge from ours over time, who may not have the same priorities, strategies or resources as we do, or whose interpretation of applicable policies may differ from our own. Transactions or ventures into which we enter might not meet our financial and non-financial control and compliance expectations or yield the anticipated benefits. Depending on the nature of the
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business ventures, including whether they operate globally, these ventures could also be subject to many of the same risks we are, including political, economic, regulatory and compliance risks, currency exchange rate fluctuations, and volatility of commodity and other input prices. Either partner might fail to recognize an alliance relationship that could expose the business to higher risk or make the venture not as productive as expected.

Furthermore, we may not be able to complete, on terms favorable to us, desired or proposed divestitures of businesses that do not meet our strategic objectives or our growth or profitability targets. Our divestiture activities, or related activities such as reorganizations, restructuring programs and transformation initiatives, may require us to provide or receive transitional support and/or ongoing commercial relationships, recognize impairment charges or take action to reduce costs that remain after we complete a divestiture. Gains or losses on the sales of, or lost operating income from, those businesses may also affect our profitability.

Any of these risks could materially and adversely affect our business, product sales, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and stock price.

Macroeconomic and Industry Risks

Our business is subject to an increasing focus on sustainability matters.

We have announced, and may from time to time announce, certain initiatives, including goals, targets and other objectives, related to sustainability matters. These statements reflect our current plans and do not constitute a guarantee that they will be achieved. Our efforts to research, establish, accomplish, and accurately report on these goals, targets and other objectives expose us to numerous operational, reputational, financial, legal and other risks. Our ability to achieve any stated goal, target or objective is subject to numerous factors and conditions, many of which are outside of our control. Examples of such factors include evolving regulatory requirements affecting sustainability standards or disclosures or imposing different requirements, the reliance on other value chain actors to implement the required changes, the pace of changes in technology and the availability of suppliers that can meet our sustainability and other standards. In addition, statements about our sustainability goals, targets and other objectives, and progress against those goals, targets and other objectives, may be based on standards for measuring progress that are still developing, internal controls and processes that continue to evolve and assumptions that are subject to change in the future. Our selection of voluntary disclosure frameworks and standards, and the interpretation or application of those frameworks and standards, may change from time to time or differ from those of others. Methodologies for reporting this data may be updated and previously reported data may be adjusted to reflect improvement in availability and quality of third-party data, changing assumptions, changes in the nature and scope of our operations, and other changes in circumstances, which could result in significant revisions to our current goals, reported progress in achieving such goals, or ability to achieve such goals in the future. Further, developing and collecting, measuring and reporting ESG-related information and metrics can be costly, difficult and time consuming and is subject to evolving reporting standards, including recent legislation in California related to reporting greenhouse gas emissions and climate-related financial risk, the SEC’s proposed climate-related reporting requirements, and similar proposals by other international regulatory bodies such as the Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive in the European Union, especially to the extent these standards are not harmonized or consistent.

Our business may face increased scrutiny from the investment community, customers, consumers, employees, activists, media, regulators and other stakeholders related to our sustainability initiatives, including the goals, targets and objectives that we announce, and our methodologies and timelines for pursuing them. At the same time, stakeholders and regulators have increasingly expressed or pursued opposing views, legislation and investment expectations with respect to sustainability initiatives, including the enactment or proposal of “Anti-ESG” legislation or policies. If our sustainability practices do not meet evolving investor or other stakeholder expectations and standards or if we are unable to satisfy all stakeholders, our reputation, our ability to attract or retain employees, our sales and our attractiveness as an investment, business partner or as an acquiror could be negatively impacted. Similarly, our failure or perceived failure to pursue or fulfill our goals, targets and objectives, to comply with ethical, environmental or other standards, regulations or expectations, or to satisfy various reporting standards with respect to these matters, within the timelines we announce, or at all, could have the same negative impacts, as well as expose us to government enforcement actions, fines and private litigation. Even if we achieve our goals, targets and objectives, we may not realize all of the benefits that we expected at the time they were established.



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Climate change might adversely impact our supply chain or our operations.

Scientific evidence collected by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change demonstrates that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have caused and will in the future cause changes in weather patterns around the globe that expose us to physical and transition risk. Physical risks include the increasing frequency of extreme weather events and natural disasters and effects on water availability and quality and biodiversity loss. These impacts increase risks to the global food production and distribution system and to the safety and resilience of the communities where we live, work and source our ingredients, and could further decrease food security for communities around the world. Decreased agricultural productivity caused by climate change has and in the future may continue to limit the availability of the commodities we purchase and use and increase the costs of such products. These include cocoa, which is a critical raw material for our chocolate and biscuit portfolios that is particularly sensitive to changes in climate and has recently had a global decrease in availability and increase in price, as well as other raw materials such as dairy, wheat, vegetable oils, sugar and nuts. Weather events such as floods, severe storms or water shortages that are partially caused or exacerbated by climate change might disrupt our business operations or those of our suppliers, their suppliers, our external manufacturing partners, distributors or other business partners and could increase our insurance and other operating costs.

Transition risks include increased focus by federal, state and local regulatory and legislative bodies globally regarding environmental policies relating to climate change, regulating greenhouse gas emissions (including carbon pricing or a carbon tax), energy policies, disclosure obligations and sustainability (including single use plastics). New legal and regulatory requirements have increased and could continue to increase our operating costs for things like energy or packaging through taxes or regulations, including payments under extended producer responsibility policies, taxes on specific packaging material types and targets to increase the use of reuse/refill delivery models. Increasing regulation of carbon taxes could also substantially increase our product supply chain and distribution costs. Even if we make changes to align ourselves with such legal or regulatory requirements, we may still be subject to significant penalties or potential litigation if such laws and regulations are interpreted and applied in a manner inconsistent with our practices. Concern about climate change might cause consumer preferences to switch away from products or ingredients considered to have high climate change impact and towards products that are more sustainably grown and made. We expect to incur additional costs as we evolve our portfolio and engage in due diligence, verification and reporting in connection with our ESG and sustainability initiatives. We might not effectively address increased attention from the media, shareholders, activists and other stakeholders on climate change and related environmental sustainability matters, including deforestation, land use, water use and packaging, including plastic. Those stakeholders might also have requests or proposals that are not aligned with the focus of our efforts on climate change and ESG matters. Climate change-related impacts could also reduce demand for our products. If costs for raw materials increase or availability decreases, we raise prices for our products and our competitors respond differently to those cost or availability pressures, demand for our products and our market share could suffer. We have also experienced decreased demand for chocolate during periods when temperatures are warmer.

In 2021, we announced our goal of net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Achieving this goal will require significant transformation of our business, capital investment and the development of technology that might not currently exist. We might incur significant additional expense or be required to recognize impairment charges in connection with our efforts, and we might be unable to achieve, or be perceived to fail to achieve, our goal.

Any or all of these risks could materially and adversely affect our ability to meet the needs of our customers, reputation, product sales, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and stock price.

Our retail customers are consolidating, and we must leverage our value proposition in order to compete against retailer and other economy brands.

Retail customers, such as supermarkets, discounters, digital commerce merchants, warehouse clubs and food distributors in the European Union, the United States and other major markets, continue to consolidate, form buying alliances or be acquired by new entrants in the food retail market, resulting in fewer, larger customers. Large retail customers and customer alliances can delist our products or reduce the shelf space allotted to our products and demand lower pricing, increased promotional programs or longer payment terms. Retail customers might also adopt these tactics in their dealings with us in response to the significant growth in online retailing for consumer products, which is outpacing the growth of traditional retail channels and has increased further since the COVID-19 pandemic.
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The growth of alternative online retail channels, such as direct-to-consumer and electronic business-to-business, may adversely affect our relationships with our large retail and wholesale customers.

In addition, larger retail customers have the scale to develop supply chains that permit them to operate with reduced inventories or to develop and market their own retailer and other economy brands that compete with some of our products. Our products must provide higher quality or value to our consumers than the less expensive alternatives, particularly during periods of economic uncertainty, recessions or significant inflation. Consumers may not buy our products if they perceive little difference between the quality or value of our products and those of retailer or other economy brands. If consumers prefer or otherwise choose to purchase the retailer or other economy brands, we can lose market share or sales volumes, or we may need to shift our product mix to lower margin offerings.
Retail consolidation also increases the risk that adverse changes in our customers’ business operations or financial performance will have a corresponding material adverse effect on us. For example, if our customers cannot access sufficient funds or financing, then they may delay, decrease or cancel purchases of our products, or delay or fail to pay us for previous purchases.

Failure to effectively respond to retail consolidation, increasing retail power and competition from retailer and other economy brands could materially and adversely affect our reputation, brands, product sales, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and stock price.

We are subject to changes in our relationships with significant customers, suppliers and distributors.

During 2023, no single customer accounted for more than 10% of our net revenues. There can be no assurance that our customers will continue to purchase our products in the same mix or quantities or on the same terms as in the past, particularly as increasingly powerful retailers continue to demand lower pricing and develop their own brands. The loss of or disruptions related to a significant customer could result in a material reduction in sales or change in the mix of products we sell to the customer. This could materially and adversely affect our product sales, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and stock price.

Disputes with significant customers, suppliers or distributors, including disputes related to pricing or performance and any resultant refusal to provide shelf and/or retail spaces for our products, could adversely affect our ability to supply or deliver products or operate our business and could materially and adversely affect our product sales, financial condition and results of operations. The financial condition of our significant customers and business partners are affected by events that are largely beyond our control. New regulations can also affect our commercial practices and our relationship with customers, suppliers or distributors. Deterioration in the financial condition of significant customers, suppliers or distributors or regulations affecting our relationship with these parties could materially and adversely affect our product sales, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and stock price.

We may be unable to hire or retain and develop key personnel or a highly skilled and diverse global workforce or effectively manage changes in our workforce and respond to shifts in labor availability.

We must attract, hire, retain and develop effective leaders and a highly skilled and diverse global workforce. We compete to hire new personnel with a variety of capabilities in the many countries in which we manufacture and market our products and then to develop and retain their skills and competencies. We have experienced and could continue to experience unplanned or increased turnover of employees with key capabilities, and we could fail to develop adequate succession plans for leadership positions or hire and retain a workforce with the skills and in the locations we need to operate and grow our business. We could also fail to attract and develop personnel with key emerging capabilities that we need to continue to respond to changing consumer and customer needs and grow our business, including skills in the areas of digital commerce and marketing, data analytics, and procurement and supply chain expertise. Occurrence of any of these conditions could deplete our institutional knowledge base and erode our competitiveness.

We are experiencing an increasingly tight and competitive labor market and could face unforeseen challenges in the availability of labor. A sustained labor shortage or increased turnover rates within our employee base as a result of general macroeconomic factors (including high inflation and hyperinflation in certain markets), have led and in the future could continue to lead to increased costs, such as increased overtime to meet demand and increased wages to attract and retain employees. We have also been negatively affected and could continue to be negatively affected by labor shortages or constraints experienced by our partners, including our external manufacturing partners, freight providers, other strategic suppliers and distributors. Failure to achieve and maintain a diverse workforce and
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leadership team, compensate our employees competitively and fairly, maintain a safe and inclusive environment or promote the well-being of our employees could affect our reputation and also result in lower performance and an inability to retain valuable employees.

We must address changes in, and that affect, our workforce and satisfy the legal requirements associated with how we manage and compensate our employees. This includes our management of employees represented by labor unions or workers’ councils, who represent approximately 55% of our 79,000 employees outside the United States and approximately 21% of our 12,000 U.S. employees. Strikes such as the one we experienced in some of our U.S. manufacturing and distribution facilities in 2021, work stoppages, or other forms of labor unrest by our employees or those of our suppliers, distributors or other business partners, or situations like the renegotiation of collective bargaining agreements, have in the past and may in the future cause disruptions to our supply chain, manufacturing or distribution processes. Changes in immigration laws and policies or restrictions could make it more difficult for us to recruit or relocate skilled employees. We could also fail to effectively respond to evolving perceptions and goals of those in our workforce or whom we might seek to hire with respect to flexible working or other matters.

These risks could materially and adversely affect our reputation, ability to efficiently operate our manufacturing facilities and overall business and meet the needs of our customers, product sales, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and stock price.

Legal and Regulatory Risks

We face risks related to complying with changes in and inconsistencies among laws and regulations in many countries in which we operate.

Our activities around the world are highly regulated and subject to government oversight. Various laws and regulations govern food production, sourcing, packaging and waste management (including packaging containing PFAS), storage, distribution, sales, advertising, labeling and marketing, as well as intellectual property, competition, antitrust, trade and export controls, labor, tax, social and environmental matters, privacy, data protection, and health and safety practices. Government authorities regularly change laws and regulations, their interpretations of existing laws and regulations, and their enforcement priorities. Our failure to comply with existing laws and regulations (or allegations thereof), or to make changes necessary to comply with new or revised laws and regulations or evolving interpretations and application of existing laws and regulations, and differing or competing laws and regulations across the markets where our products are made, manufactured, distributed and sold, could materially and adversely affect our product sales, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, including as a result of higher compliance costs, higher capital expenditures and higher production costs. For instance, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be negatively affected by the regulatory and economic impact of changes in the corporate tax policies of the United States and other countries; trade relations among the United States and other countries, including China, Mexico and the European Union; and changes within the European Union. Evolving expectations on ESG disclosures and reporting will also result in new regulatory actions. In addition, the results of third-party studies (whether or not scientifically valid) purporting to assess the health implications of consumption of certain ingredients or substances present in certain of our products or packaging materials have resulted in and could continue to result in our being subject to new taxes and regulations or lawsuits that can adversely affect our business.

We may decide or be required to recall products or be subjected to product liability claims.

We could decide, or laws or regulations could require us, to recall products due to suspected or confirmed deliberate or unintentional product contamination, including contamination of ingredients we use in our products that third parties supply, spoilage or other adulteration, product mislabeling or product tampering. These risks could be heightened in light of increased pressure on our suppliers from supply chain challenges. Additionally, to the extent we are required to perform remote audits, these audits do not fully offset risks from the inability to conduct on-site audits. In addition, if another company recalls or experiences negative publicity related to a product in a category in which we compete, consumers might reduce their overall consumption of products in this category. Any of these events could materially and adversely affect our reputation, brands, product sales, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and stock price.

We may also suffer losses when our products or operations or those of our suppliers violate applicable laws or regulations, or when our or our suppliers’ products cause injury, illness or death. In addition, our marketing could face claims of false or deceptive advertising or other criticism. A significant product liability claim or other legal
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judgment against us, a related regulatory enforcement action, a widespread product recall or attempts to manipulate us based on threats related to the safety of our products could materially and adversely affect our reputation and profitability. Moreover, even if a product liability, consumer fraud or other claim is unsuccessful, has no merit or is not pursued, the negative publicity surrounding assertions against our products or processes could materially and adversely affect our reputation, brands, product sales, product inventory, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and stock price, and we could incur significant expense responding to such a claim.

We face risks related to legal or tax claims or other regulatory enforcement actions.

We operate around the world in environments with constantly evolving legal, tax and regulatory frameworks, and we are subject to risk of litigation, legal or tax claims or other regulatory enforcement actions. Actions by our employees, contractors, agents or others in violation of our policies and procedures could lead to deficiencies in our internal or other controls or violations, unintentional or otherwise, of laws and regulations. Furthermore, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and supply chain challenges, there may be investigations, legal claims or litigation against us relating to our actions or decisions in response to these conditions. We could also be subject to litigation, legal claims or regulatory actions in connection with the continued evolution of our sustainability and ESG-related initiatives. In addition, we may be impacted by litigation trends, including class action lawsuits involving consumers, employees and shareholders. When litigation, legal or tax claims or regulatory enforcement actions arise out of our failure or alleged failure to comply with applicable laws, regulations or controls, we could be subject to civil and criminal penalties, and voluntary and involuntary document requests, that could materially and adversely affect our reputation, product sales, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and stock price. Even if a claim is unsuccessful, without merit or not pursued to completion, the cost of responding to such a claim, including expenses and management time, could adversely affect us.

We could fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting or disclosure controls and procedures.

The accuracy of our financial reporting depends on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Internal control over financial reporting can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements and may not prevent or detect misstatements because of its inherent limitations. These limitations include, among others, the possibility of human error, inadequacy or circumvention of controls and fraud. If we do not maintain effective internal control over financial reporting or design and implement disclosure and other controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance with respect to the preparation and fair presentation of our financial statements and other disclosures, including in connection with controls executed for us by third parties, we might fail to timely detect any misappropriation of corporate assets or inappropriate allocation or use of funds and could be unable to file financial reports or make other disclosures accurately and on a timely basis.

We face challenges as we work to meet our ESG goals and continue to evolve our ESG-related disclosures and reporting considering various existing and developing standards, such as those of the Financial Stability Board’s TCFD, the EU Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive and the SASB Standards of the Value Reporting Foundation. We might fail to meet our ESG goals or report on them accurately and timely.

As a result of any of these factors, our reputation, results of operations and stock price could be materially adversely affected.

We face risks related to adequately protecting our valuable intellectual property rights.

We consider our intellectual property rights, particularly and most notably our trademarks, but also our patents, copyrights, registered designs, proprietary trade secrets, recipes, technology, know-how and licensing agreements, to be a significant and valuable part of our business. We attempt to protect our intellectual property rights by taking advantage of a combination of patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws in various countries, as well as licensing agreements, third-party nondisclosure and assignment agreements and policing of third-party misuses and infringement of our intellectual property in traditional retail and digital environments. Our failure to obtain or adequately protect our intellectual property rights (including in response to developments in artificial intelligence technologies), or any change in law or other changes that serve to lessen or remove the current legal protections of our intellectual property, may diminish our competitiveness and could materially harm our business, financial condition and stock price.

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We may be unaware of potential third-party claims of intellectual property infringement relating to our technology, brands or products. Any litigation regarding patents or other intellectual property could be costly and time-consuming and could divert management’s and other key personnel’s attention from our business operations. Third-party claims of intellectual property infringement might require us to pay monetary damages or enter into costly license agreements. We also may be subject to injunctions against development and sale of certain of our products, which could include removal of existing products from sale. Any of these occurrences could materially and adversely affect our reputation, brand health, ability to introduce new products or improve the quality of existing products, product sales, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and stock price.

Financial Risks

We face risks related to tax matters, including changes in tax laws and rates, disagreements with taxing authorities and imposition of new taxes.

As a global company, we are subject to taxation in the United States and various other countries and jurisdictions. As a result, our effective tax rate is determined based on the income and applicable tax rates in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. Our future effective tax rates could be affected by changes in the composition of earnings in countries with differing tax rates or other factors, and adverse changes in the underlying profitability or financial outlook of our operations in several jurisdictions could lead to changes in the realizability of our deferred tax assets, resulting in a charge to our effective tax rate.

Changes in tax laws in the U.S. or in other countries where we have significant operations (such as Brazil’s recently passed tax legislation), including rate changes or corporate tax provisions that could disallow or tax perceived base erosion or profit shifting payments or subject us to new types of tax, could materially affect our effective tax rate and our deferred tax assets and liabilities. In addition, aspects of U.S. tax laws may lead foreign jurisdictions to respond by enacting additional tax legislation that is unfavorable to us. As of December 31, 2023, numerous countries have now enacted the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development’s model rules on a global minimum tax, with the earliest effective date being for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2023. Based on the guidance available thus far, we do not expect this legislation to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements, but we will continue to evaluate it as additional guidance and clarification becomes available.

We are also subject to tax audits by governmental authorities. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, if a taxing authority disagrees with the positions we have taken, we could face additional tax liabilities, including interest and penalties. Unexpected results from one or more such tax audits could significantly adversely affect our effective tax rate, results of operations, cash flows and stock price.

We are subject to currency exchange rate fluctuations.

At December 31, 2023, we sold our products in over 150 countries and had operations in approximately 80 countries. Consequently, a significant portion of our business is exposed to currency exchange rate fluctuations. Our financial position and operating results are sensitive to movements in currency exchange rates, which have recently been more volatile, because a large portion of our assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses must be translated into U.S. dollars for reporting purposes or converted into U.S. dollars to service obligations such as our U.S. dollar-denominated indebtedness and to pay dividends to our shareholders. In addition, movements in currency exchange rates affect transaction costs because we source product ingredients from various countries. Our efforts to mitigate our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations, primarily on cross-currency transactions, may not be successful. We factor exchange rate impacts into our local pricing decisions, but there may be lags in implementing pricing changes due to competitive pressures or customer or regulatory constraints. We also hedge a number of risks including exposures to foreign exchange rate movements and volatility of interest rates that could impact our future borrowing costs. Hedging of these risks could potentially subject us to counter-party credit risk. In addition, local economies, monetary policies and currency hedging availability affect our ability to hedge against currency-related economic losses. We might not be able to successfully mitigate our exposure to currency risks due to factors such as continued global and local market volatility, actions by foreign governments, trade disputes, economic sanctions, political uncertainty, inflation, interest rates and limited hedging opportunities. For instance, in December 2023, the Argentinean peso devalued significantly in excess of historic levels. Accordingly, changes in the currency exchange rates that we use to translate our results into U.S. dollars for financial reporting purposes or for transactions involving multiple currencies could materially and adversely affect future demand for our products, our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and stock price, and our relationships with customers, suppliers and employees in the short or long-term.
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Weak financial performance, downgrades in our credit ratings, rising interest rates, illiquid global capital markets and volatile global economic conditions could limit our access to the global capital markets or the effectiveness of our cash management programs, reduce our liquidity and increase our borrowing costs.

We access the long-term and short-term global capital markets to obtain financing. Our financial performance, our short-and long-term debt credit ratings, interest rates, the stability of financial institutions with which we partner, the liquidity of the overall global capital markets (which could be impacted by the United States government’s decisions regarding its debt ceiling) and the state of the global economy, including the food industry, could affect our access to, and the availability and cost of, financing on acceptable terms and conditions and our ability to pay dividends in the future. Globally, several central banks in various countries have raised, and may again raise, interest rates to combat inflation. There can be no assurance that we will have access to the global capital markets on terms we find acceptable.

We regularly access the commercial paper markets in the United States and Europe for ongoing funding requirements. A downgrade in our credit ratings by a credit rating agency could increase our borrowing costs and adversely affect our ability to issue commercial paper. Disruptions in the global commercial paper market or other effects of volatile economic conditions on the global credit markets also could reduce the amount of commercial paper that we could issue and raise our borrowing costs for both short- and long-term debt offerings.

We use cash management programs, such as factoring and supply chain finance arrangements, in our business when circumstances are favorable to manage liquidity. If these programs or underlying customer or supplier terms do not continue and we are unable to secure alternative programs, our cash and working capital may be negatively affected and we may have to utilize our various financing arrangements or increase our long-term borrowings for short- and long-term liquidity requirements.

Limitations on our ability to access the global capital markets, a reduction in our liquidity or an increase in our borrowing costs could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and stock price.

Volatility in the global capital markets, interest rates, inflation rates, our participation in multiemployer pension plans and other factors could increase our costs relating to our employees’ pensions.

We sponsor defined benefit pension plans for a number of our employees throughout the world and also contribute to other employees’ pensions under defined benefit plans that we do not sponsor. At the end of 2023, the projected benefit obligation of the defined benefit pension plans we sponsor was $8.6 billion and plan assets were $9.2 billion.

For defined benefit pension plans that we maintain, the difference between plan obligations and assets, or the funded status of the plans, significantly affects the net periodic benefit costs of our pension plans and the ongoing funding requirements of those plans. Our largest funded defined benefit pension plans are funded with trust assets invested in a globally diversified portfolio of investments, including equities and corporate and government debt. Among other factors, changes in interest rates, inflation rates, mortality rates, early retirement rates, investment returns, funding requirements in the jurisdictions in which the plans operate and the market value of plan assets affect the level of plan funding, cause volatility in the net periodic pension cost and impact our future funding requirements. Legislative and other governmental regulatory actions may also increase funding requirements for our pension plans’ benefits obligation. Volatility in the global capital markets may increase the risk that we will be required to make additional cash contributions to these company-sponsored pension plans and recognize further increases in our net periodic pension cost.

We also participate in multiemployer pension plans for certain U.S. union-represented employees. As a participating employer under multiemployer pension plans, we may owe more than the contributions we are required to make under the applicable collective bargaining agreements. For example, if we partially or completely withdraw from a multiemployer pension plan, we may be required to pay a partial or complete withdrawal liability, such as the withdrawal liability we are paying in connection with our complete withdrawal from the Bakery and Confectionery Union and Industry International Pension Fund in 2018. This kind of withdrawal liability will generally increase if there is also a mass withdrawal of other participating employers or if the plan terminates. See Note 11, Benefit Plans, to the consolidated financial statements for more information on our multiemployer pension plans.

A significant increase in our pension benefit obligations, future funding requirements or net periodic benefit costs could curtail our ability to invest in the business and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and stock price.
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Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

Item 1C. Cybersecurity.

We are committed to our goal to protect sensitive business-related and personal information, as well as our information systems. Due to the size and scope of our global operations, we are subject to numerous and evolving cybersecurity risks that could adversely and materially affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our Management Leadership Team, with oversight from the Board of Directors, has implemented a comprehensive cybersecurity program, including incident response process, aligned with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework and NIST Computer Security Incident Handling Guide (NIST SP 800-61) to assess, identify, address and manage risks from cybersecurity threats that may result in material adverse effects on the confidentiality, integrity and availability of our business and information systems.

Governance
Our Board of Directors and Management Leadership Team review cybersecurity risks as part of their oversight and execution of the Company’s business operations and strategy. We have established oversight mechanisms intended to provide effective cybersecurity governance, risk management, and timely incident response.

Board of Directors Oversight
Our Board, in coordination with the Audit Committee, oversees the Company’s enterprise risk management process, including the management of risks arising from cybersecurity threats. Our Board has delegated the primary responsibility to oversee cybersecurity matters to the Audit Committee. Both the Board and the Audit Committee periodically review the measures we have implemented to identify and mitigate data protection and cybersecurity risks.

As part of such reviews, our Board and Audit Committee receive periodic reports and presentations from members of the team responsible for overseeing cybersecurity risk management, including our Chief Information Security Officer (CISO), which may address a wide range of topics including recent developments, evolving standards, vulnerability assessments, third-party and independent reviews, technological trends and information security considerations arising with respect to our peers and third parties. Members of our Management Leadership Team also report to the Board at least annually on data protection and current internal and external developments in cybersecurity, as part of the Board’s enterprise risk management review, and the Board receives reports of Audit Committee discussions regarding its oversight of cybersecurity risk. We have protocols by which certain cybersecurity incidents that meet established reporting thresholds are escalated internally and, where appropriate, reported to the Audit Committee or the Board in a timely manner.

Management Role in Cybersecurity Risk Management
At the management level, our CISO has extensive cybersecurity knowledge and skills gained from over 20 years of work experience at Mondelēz and other major consumer goods and financial services companies. Our CISO currently reports to our Chief Financial Officer and has operational responsibility for our information security programs, protections, and efforts, along with leading the team responsible for implementing, monitoring, and maintaining cybersecurity and data security strategy, policy, standards, architecture, and practices across our business. Our CISO is supported by a team of enterprise information system security and risk professionals, including regional information security officers responsible for overseeing cybersecurity strategy and operations in each business unit. Our CISO receives reports on cybersecurity threats on an ongoing basis and regularly reviews risk management measures implemented by the Company to identify and mitigate data security and cybersecurity risks. Our CISO updates the Management Leadership Team on these matters and works closely with Corporate and Legal Affairs to oversee compliance with legal, regulatory, and contractual security requirements.

Cybersecurity Steering Committee
Our Cybersecurity Steering Committee currently includes our CEO, CFO, CISO, General Counsel and Chief Ethics & Compliance Officer and has broad oversight of our cybersecurity risk management processes, in coordination with the rest of the Management Leadership Team and the Board. The Cybersecurity Steering Committee has been established to meet and to discuss our cybersecurity risk management measures designed to identify and mitigate
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data protection and cybersecurity risks, along with procedures and practices related to incident response, including escalation and notification.

Risk Management and Strategy
Cybersecurity risk management is overseen both as a critical component of our overall risk management program and as a standalone program. We have implemented a risk-based, cross-functional approach to identifying, preventing and mitigating cybersecurity threats and incidents, while also implementing controls and procedures that provide for the prompt escalation of certain cybersecurity incidents so that decisions regarding the public disclosure and reporting of such incidents can be made by management in a timely manner.

Our cybersecurity program is designed to leverage people, processes, and technology to identify and respond to cybersecurity threats in a timely manner. Our vendor cybersecurity risk management program supports the planning, automation, and management of cybersecurity risk with enrolled suppliers and other third parties, focusing on risk-based assessments. Our employees undergo annual security awareness training to enhance their understanding of cybersecurity threats and their ability to identify and escalate potential cybersecurity events. We also employ systems and processes designed to oversee, identify, and reduce the potential impact of a security incident at a third-party vendor, service provider or customer or otherwise implicating the third-party technology and systems we use.

We assess, identify, and manage risks from cybersecurity threats through various mechanisms, which may include tabletop exercises to test our preparedness and incident response process, business unit assessments, control gap analyses, threat modeling, penetration tests, vulnerability scanning, internal audits, and external audits of our cybersecurity program. We also leverage assessors, consultants, auditors and third-party service providers, including threat intelligence to inform our understanding of the cybersecurity threat landscape and enable risk-based measures to defend against evolving threats.

Incident Response
We have a Cybersecurity Incident Response Plan (“CSIRP”) to provide the organizational and operational structure, processes, and procedures for investigating, containing, documenting and mitigating cybersecurity incidents, including keeping senior management and other key stakeholders informed and involved as appropriate.

Our Cybersecurity Incident Response Team manages and executes technical response activities in coordination with our Security Operations Center, subject matter experts and others to respond to a cybersecurity incident. The objectives of the CSIRP include to:

Establish the Company’s cybersecurity incident response process and provide actionable guidelines to provide a timely, consistent, and repeatable response process;
Describe the requirements and expectations for cybersecurity incident response;
Set forth the roles and responsibilities for cybersecurity incident response personnel;
Establish cybersecurity incident classification, escalation, and prioritization parameters;
Confirm the documentation process for cybersecurity incidents affecting the Company and the Company’s responses are appropriately documented;
Establish protocols for materiality determinations for cybersecurity incidents under the SEC’s cybersecurity rules;
Establish the process for assessing when public disclosure and external communications may be required; and
Mitigate or minimize the effects of a cybersecurity incident on the Company, its personnel, customers, consumers, or others and limit financial, operational, legal, and reputational impact.

Material Cybersecurity Risks, Threats & Incidents
We also rely on information technology and third-party vendors to support our operations, including our secure processing of personal, confidential, sensitive, proprietary and other types of information. Despite ongoing efforts to continuously improve our and our vendors’ ability to protect against cyber incidents, we may not be able to protect all information systems, and such incidents may lead to reputational harm, revenue and client loss, legal actions, statutory penalties, among other consequences. While we have not experienced any material cybersecurity threats or incidents in recent years, there can be no guarantee that we will not be the subject of future threats or incidents. Additional information on cybersecurity risks we face can be found in Item 1A, Risk Factors, which should be read in conjunction with the foregoing information.

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Item 2. Properties.

On December 31, 2023, we had approximately 148 manufacturing and processing facilities in 46 countries and 107 distribution centers and warehouses worldwide that we owned or leased. In addition to our owned or leased properties, we also utilize a highly distributed network of warehouses and distribution centers that are owned or leased by third party logistics partners, contract manufacturers, co-packers or other strategic partners. We believe we have or will add sufficient capacity to meet our planned operating needs. It is our practice to maintain all of our plants and other facilities in good condition.
 As of December 31, 2023
Number of
Manufacturing
Facilities
Number of
Distribution
 and Warehouse Facilities
Latin America (1)
19 15 
AMEA45 26 
Europe61 
North America23 60 
Total148 107 
Owned123 14 
Leased25 93 
Total148 107 

(1)Excludes our deconsolidated Venezuela operations. Refer to Note 1, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, for more information.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings.

Information regarding legal proceedings is available in Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies, to the consolidated financial statements in this report.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable.
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PART II

Item 5.  Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

We are proud members of the Standard and Poor’s 500 and Nasdaq 100. Our Common Stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “MDLZ.” At January 30, 2024, there were 36,216 holders of record of our Common Stock.

Comparison of Five-Year Cumulative Total Return

The following graph compares the cumulative total return on our Common Stock with the cumulative total return of the S&P 500 Index and the Mondelēz International performance peer group index. The graph assumes, in each case, that an initial investment of $100 is made at the beginning of the five-year period. The cumulative total return reflects market prices at the end of each year and the reinvestment of dividends each year.

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As of December 31,Mondelēz
International
S&P 500Performance
Peer Group
2018$100.00 $100.00 $100.00 
2019140.42 131.49 126.82 
2020152.48 155.68 138.77 
2021176.68 200.37 158.64 
2022181.84 164.08 157.16 
2023202.16 207.21 154.04 

The Mondelēz International performance peer group consists of the following companies considered our market competitors or that have been selected on the basis of industry, global focus or industry leadership: Campbell Soup Company, The Coca-Cola Company, Colgate-Palmolive Company, Danone S.A., General Mills, Inc., The Hershey Company, Kellanova (formerly Kellogg Company), The Kraft Heinz Company, Nestlé S.A., PepsiCo, Inc., The Procter & Gamble Company and Unilever PLC.
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Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our stock repurchase activity for each of the three months in the quarter ended December 31, 2023 was:
 
Period
Total Number of Shares Purchased (1)
Average Price Paid per Share (1)
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs (2) (3)
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (2)
October 1-31, 20235,915 $69.00 — $5,341 
November 1-30, 20239,067,510 69.71 9,067,243 4,709 
December 1-31, 20233,890,796 71.28 3,890,541 4,432 
For the Quarter Ended
December 31, 2023
12,964,221 $70.18 12,957,784 
 
(1)The total number of shares purchased (and the average price paid per share) reflects: (i) shares purchased pursuant to the repurchase program described in (2) below; and (ii) shares tendered to us by employees who used shares to exercise options and to pay the related taxes for grants of deferred stock units that vested, totaling 5,915 shares, 267 shares and 255 shares for the fiscal months of October, November and December 2023, respectively.
(2)Dollar values stated in millions. Effective January 1, 2023, our Board of Directors authorized a program for the repurchase of up to $6.0 billion of our Common Stock through December 31, 2025, excluding excise tax. Since the program inception on January 1, 2023 through December 31, 2023, we have repurchased $1.6 billion. As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately $4.4 billion share repurchase authorization remaining. See related information in Note 13, Capital Stock.
(3)As of January 1, 2023, our share repurchases in excess of issuances are subject to a 1% excise tax enacted by the Inflation Reduction Act. Any excise tax incurred on share repurchases is recognized as part of the cost basis of the shares acquired in the consolidated statements of equity.

Item 6.   Reserved.


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Item 7.   Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The following discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements. It should be read in conjunction with the other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the consolidated financial statements and related notes contained in Forward-Looking Statements and Item 1A, Risk Factors.

Overview of Business and Strategy

Our core business is making and selling chocolate, biscuits and baked snacks, with additional businesses in adjacent, locally relevant categories including gum & candy, cheese & grocery and powdered beverages around the world.

We aim to be the global leader in snacking. Our strategy is to drive long-term growth by focusing on four strategic priorities: accelerating consumer-centric growth, driving operational excellence, creating a winning growth culture and scaling sustainable snacking. We believe the successful implementation of our strategic priorities and leveraging of our attractive global footprint, strong core of iconic global and local brands, marketing, sales, distribution and cost excellence capabilities, and top talent with a growth mindset, will drive consistent top- and bottom-line growth, enabling us to continue to create long-term value for our shareholders.

For more detailed information on our business and strategy, refer to Item 1, Business.

Recent Developments and Significant Items Affecting Comparability

Macroeconomic environment

We continue to observe significant market and geopolitical uncertainty, inflationary pressures, supply constraints and exchange rate volatility. As a result, we experienced significantly higher operating costs, including higher overall raw material, labor and energy costs that have continued to rise. Our overall outlook for future snacks revenue growth remains strong; however, we anticipate ongoing volatility. We will continue to proactively manage our business in response to the evolving global economic environment, related uncertainty and business risks while also prioritizing and supporting our employees and customers. We continue to take steps to mitigate impacts to our supply chain, operations, technology and assets.

War in Ukraine

In February 2022, following the Russian military invasion of Ukraine, we stopped production and closed our facilities in Ukraine; since then we have taken steps to protect the safety of our employees and to restore operations at our two manufacturing facilities, which were significantly damaged in March 2022. We continue to support our Ukraine employees, including paying salaries to those not yet able to return to work until full production returns. See Note 1, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies - War in Ukraine, to the consolidated financial statements and refer to Items Affecting Comparability of Financial Results for additional information.

We have suspended new capital investments and our advertising spending in Russia, but as a food company with more than 2,500 employees in the country, we have not ceased operations given we believe we play a role in the continuity of the food supply. We continue to evaluate the situation in Ukraine and Russia and our ability to control our operating activities and businesses on an ongoing basis and comply with applicable international sanctions, and we continue to consolidate both our Ukrainian and Russian subsidiaries. During 2023, Ukraine generated 0.4% and Russia generated 2.9% of consolidated net revenue and during 2022, Ukraine generated 0.3% and Russia generated 4.0% of consolidated net revenue. Our Russian net revenues declined in 2023 due to continued suspension of advertising as well as currency weakness. Despite the decrease in revenues, the profitability of our Russian business in 2023 remained above historical levels. We cannot predict if the recent strength in our Russian business will continue in the future.

Our operations in Russia are subject to risks, including the temporary or permanent loss of assets or our ability to conduct business operations in Russia and the partial or full impairment of our Russian assets in future periods, or the termination of our business operations, based on actions taken by Russia, other parties or us. For more information, see Item 1A, Risk Factors, including the risk entitled “The war in Ukraine has impacted and could continue to impact our business operations, financial performance and results of operations.

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Developments in the Middle East

In October 2023, conflict developed in the Middle East between Hamas and Israel, and conflict has expanded throughout the region. In the fourth quarter of 2023, we experienced minor sales impact related to this conflict in certain AMEA markets, but this did not have a material impact on our business, results of operations or financial condition. We continue to evaluate the impacts of these developments on our business and we cannot predict if it will have a significant impact in the future.

Acquisitions and Divestitures

During 2022, we completed the following acquisitions to strategically complement and expand our existing portfolio:
Ricolino, a confectionery business with products sold primarily in Mexico
Clif Bar & Company (“Clif Bar”), a leading U.S. maker of nutritious energy bars with organic ingredients
Chipita Global S.A. ("Chipita"), a high-growth leader in the central and Eastern European croissant and baked snacks category

Additionally in 2022, we announced our intention to divest our developed market gum and global Halls candy businesses and in the fourth quarter of 2022, we announced an agreement to sell the developed market gum business. On October 1, 2023, we completed the sale of our developed market gum business to Perfetti Van Melle Group, excluding the Portugal business which we retained pending regulatory approval. After obtaining the regulatory approval, we completed the sale of the Portugal business to Perfetti Van Melle Group on October 23, 2023.

Refer to Note 2, Acquisitions and Divestitures, and Liquidity and Capital Resources for additional details.

Investment Transactions

JDE Peet’s Transactions (Euronext Amsterdam: “JDEP”)
In 2023, we sold approximately 9.9 million of our shares, which reduced our ownership interest by 2.0 percentage points, from 19.7% to 17.7%. We recorded a loss of €21 million ($23 million). In 2022, we sold approximately 18.6 million of our shares back to JDEP, which reduced our ownership interest by approximately 3.0 percentage points. We recorded a loss of €8 million ($8 million). In 2021, we issued €300 million exchangeable bonds. If all bonds were redeemed in exchange for shares, this would represent approximately 8.5 million shares or approximately 10% of our equity interest in JDEP.

Keurig Dr Pepper Transactions (Nasdaq: "KDP")
In 2023, we sold the remainder of our shares in KDP, representing approximately 76 million shares. Our reduction in ownership to below 5% eliminated our significant influence over KDP, resulting in a change in accounting from equity method investment accounting to accounting for equity interests with readily determinable fair values in the first quarter of 2023. Prior to this change, we recorded a pre-tax gain on equity method transactions of $493 million ($368 million after-tax)- in 2023. After the change in accounting, we recorded pre-tax gains for marketable securities of $606 million in 2023. In 2021, we sold approximately 42.7 million shares in KDP, which reduced our ownership interest by 3.0 percentage points to 5.3%. We recorded a pre-tax gain of $768 million (or $581 million after-tax).

For additional information, refer to Note 7, Investments and Note 10, Financial Instruments.

Taxes

We continue to monitor existing and potential future tax reform around the world. As of December 31, 2023, numerous countries have now enacted the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development’s model rules on a global minimum tax, with the earliest effective date being for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2023. Based on the guidance available thus far, we do not expect this legislation to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements but we will continue to evaluate it as additional guidance and clarification becomes available.





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Financial Outlook

We seek to achieve profitable, long-term growth and manage our business to attain this goal using our key operating metrics: Organic Net Revenue, Adjusted Operating Income and Adjusted EPS. We use these non-GAAP financial metrics and related computations, particularly growth in profit dollars, to evaluate and manage our business and to plan and make near- and long-term operating and strategic decisions. As such, we believe these metrics are useful to investors as they provide supplemental information in addition to our U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“U.S. GAAP”) financial results. We believe it is useful to provide investors with the same financial information that we use internally to make comparisons of our historical operating results, identify trends in our underlying operating results and evaluate our business. We believe our non-GAAP financial measures should always be considered in relation to our GAAP results. Refer to Non-GAAP Financial Measures for the definitions of our non-GAAP financial measures and Consolidated Results of Operations for the respective reconciliations.

In addition to monitoring our key operating metrics, we monitor a number of developments and trends that could impact our revenue and profitability objectives:

Demand
We monitor consumer spending and our market share within the food and beverage categories in which we sell our products. Core snacks categories continued to expand due to the continued growth of snacking as a consumer behavior around the world. As part of our strategic plan, we seek to drive category growth by leveraging our local and consumer-focused commercial approach, making investments in our brand and snacks portfolio, building strong routes to market in both emerging and developed markets and improving our availability across multiple channels. We believe these actions will help drive demand in our categories and strengthen our positions across markets.

Long-Term Demographics and Consumer Trends
Snack food consumption is highly correlated to GDP growth, urbanization of populations and rising discretionary income levels associated with a growing middle class, particularly in emerging markets. We believe that snacks continue to be a source of comfort as well as excitement and variety for consumers. Social media increasingly helps consumers find food trends, inspiration and connection on their social media and other feeds. Consumers are also interested in buying snacks conveniently, whether through same-day delivery platforms, shipped sources or different retail settings. Many consumers also continue to prioritize sustainability in their purchase decisions, valuing sustainably sourced ingredients, low carbon footprint preparation and lower waste packaging. We seek to continue to offer snacks that meet consumer needs and preferences and align with our strategic priorities.

Pricing
Our net revenue growth and profitability may be affected as we adjust prices to address new conditions, such as increasing input and operating costs due to supply, transportation and labor constraints and higher cost trends. We adjust our product prices based on a number of variables including market factors, transportation, logistics and changes in our product input costs, and we have increased prices to control costs given significant cost inflation.

Operating Costs
Our operating costs include raw materials, labor, selling, general and administrative expenses, taxes, currency impacts and financing costs. We manage these costs through cost saving and productivity initiatives, sourcing and hedging programs, pricing actions, refinancing and tax planning. To remain competitive on our operating structure, we continue to work on programs to expand our profitability, such as our Simplify to Grow Program, which is designed to bring about significant reductions in our operating cost structure in both our supply chain and overhead costs. We experienced significantly higher operating costs, including higher overall raw material and labor costs that have continued to rise.











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Summary of Results
 
Net revenues were approximately $36.0 billion in 2023 and $31.5 billion in 2022, an increase of 14.4% in 2023 and an increase of 9.7% in 2022. In both 2023 and 2022, our net revenue growth continued to reflect increased demand for most of our snack category products in both our emerging and developed markets.
Net revenues increased in 2023, driven by higher net pricing, incremental net revenues from our acquisitions of Clif Bar and Ricolino in 2022, favorable volume/mix and incremental net revenue from a short-term distributor agreement related to the sale of our developed market gum business, partially offset by a significant impact from unfavorable currency translation, as the U.S. dollar strengthened relative to most currencies we operate in compared to exchange rates in the prior year, and the impact of our developed market gum divestiture in 2023.
Net revenues increased in 2022, driven by higher net pricing, incremental net revenues from our acquisitions of Chipita, Clif Bar and Ricolino in 2022 and Gourmet Foods and Grenade in 2021 and favorable volume/mix, partially offset by a significant impact from unfavorable currency translation, as the U.S. dollar strengthened relative to most currencies we operate in compared to exchange rates in the prior year, and a decline in our developed market gum business, divested in 2023, and the impact from our divestitures in 2022.

Organic Net Revenue, a non-GAAP financial measure, increased 14.7% to $35.6 billion in 2023 and increased 12.3% to $31.7 billion in 2022. Organic Net Revenue increased in both 2023 and 2022 due to higher net pricing and favorable volume/mix. Organic Net Revenue is on a constant currency basis and excludes revenue from acquisitions and divestitures. Refer to Non-GAAP Financial Measures for the definition of Organic Net Revenue and Consolidated Results of Operations for our reconciliation with net revenues.

Diluted EPS attributable to Mondelēz International increased 84.7% to $3.62 in 2023 and decreased 35.5% to $1.96 in 2022.
Diluted EPS increased in 2023 driven by an increase in Adjusted EPS, a gain on marketable securities, favorable year-over-year change in mark-to-market impacts from currency and commodity derivatives, higher net gain on equity method investment transactions, lower impact from the European Commission legal matter, lapping prior year acquisition-related costs, lapping prior year incremental costs due to the war in Ukraine, a gain on divestiture, lapping prior year loss on debt extinguishment, lower intangible asset impairment charges and lapping prior year inventory step-up charges. These favorable items were partially offset by higher acquisition integration costs and contingent consideration adjustments, higher equity method investee items, higher negative initial impacts from enacted tax law changes, higher remeasurement loss of net monetary position, lower operating results from divestitures, higher divestiture-related costs, lapping prior year 2017 malware incident net recoveries and higher Simplify to Grow program costs.
Diluted EPS decreased in 2022 driven by lapping prior year net gains on equity method transactions, unfavorable year-over-year mark-to-market impacts from currency and commodity derivatives, the impact from the European Commission legal matter, higher acquisition-related costs, incremental costs incurred due to the war in Ukraine, higher acquisition integration costs and contingent consideration adjustments, higher intangible asset impairment charges, higher remeasurement loss of net monetary position, inventory step-up charges incurred in 2022 and lower net earnings from divestitures, partially offset by lower Simplify to Grow program costs, an increase in Adjusted EPS, lower negative impacts from enacted tax law changes, lower equity method investee items, 2017 malware incident net recoveries and lower negative impact from pension participation changes.

Adjusted EPS, a non-GAAP financial measure, increased 14.3% to $3.19 in 2023 and increased 3.3% to $2.79 in 2022. On a constant currency basis, Adjusted EPS increased 19.0% to $3.32 in 2023 and increased 11.9% to $3.02 in 2022. Refer to Non-GAAP Financial Measures for the definition of Adjusted EPS and Consolidated Results of Operations for our reconciliation with diluted EPS.
Adjusted EPS increased in 2023, driven by operating gains, impact from acquisitions, lower interest expense, fewer shares outstanding and dividend income from marketable securities, partially offset by unfavorable currency translation, higher taxes and lower benefit plan non-service income.
Adjusted EPS increased in 2022, driven by operating gains and fewer shares outstanding, partially offset by unfavorable currency translation, higher interest expense and lower equity method investment earnings.
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Discussion and Analysis of Historical Results

Items Affecting Comparability of Financial Results

The following table includes significant income or (expense) items that affected the comparability of our results of operations and our effective tax rates. Please refer to the notes to the consolidated financial statements indicated below for more information. Refer also to the Consolidated Results of Operations – Net Earnings and Earnings per Share Attributable to Mondelēz International table for the after-tax per share impacts of these items.
 
  For the Years Ended December 31,
 See Note202320222021
  (in millions, except percentages)
Simplify to Grow ProgramNote 8
Restructuring Charges$(106)$(36)$(154)
Implementation Charges(25)(87)(167)
Intangible asset impairment chargesNote 6(26)(101)(32)
Mark-to-market gains/(losses) from derivatives (1)
Note 10185 (318)277 
Acquisition and divestiture-related costsNote 2
Acquisition integration costs and
   contingent consideration adjustments (1)
(246)(148)40 
Inventory step-up— (25)— 
Acquisition-related costs— (254)(25)
Net gain on divestitures and acquisitions
108 — 
Divestiture-related costs(83)(18)(22)
2017 Malware incident net recoveries— 37 — 
Incremental costs due to war in Ukraine (2)
Note 1(121)— 
European Commission legal matterNote 14(43)(318)— 
Remeasurement of net monetary positionNote 1(98)(40)(13)
Impact from pension participation changes (1)
Note 11(10)(10)(42)
Impact from resolution of tax matters (1)
Note 14— — 
Loss on debt extinguishment and related expensesNote 9(1)(129)(137)
Initial impacts from enacted tax law changesNote 16(83)(17)(100)
Gain on marketable securitiesNote 7593 — — 
Gain/(loss) on equity method
   investment transactions (3)
Note 7462 (22)740 
Equity method investee items (4)
(93)25 (41)
Effective tax rateNote 1626.1 %26.8 %27.2 %
 
(1)Includes impacts recorded in operating income, benefit plan non-service income and interest expense and other, net. Mark-to-market gains/(losses) above also include our equity method investment-related derivative contract mark-to-market gains/(losses) (refer to Note 10, Financial Instruments) that are recorded in the gain on equity method investment transactions on our consolidated statement of earnings.
(2)Incremental costs due to the war in Ukraine include direct charges such as asset impairments due to damaged facilities and inventory, higher expected allowances for uncollectible accounts receivable and committed compensation. Please see the Non-GAAP Financial Measures section and Note 1, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies – War in Ukraine, for additional information.
(3)Gain/(loss) on equity method investment transactions is recorded outside pre-tax operating results on the consolidated statement of earnings. See footnote (1) as mark-to-market gains/(losses) on our equity method-investment-related derivative contracts are presented in the table above within mark-to-market gains/(losses) from derivatives.
(4)Includes our proportionate share of significant operating and non-operating items recorded by our JDE Peet's equity method investee, including acquisition and divestiture-related costs, restructuring program costs and intangible asset impairment costs.
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Consolidated Results of Operations

The following discussion compares our consolidated results of operations for 2023 with 2022 and 2022 with 2021.

2023 compared with 2022
 For the Years Ended
December 31,
  
 20232022
$ Change
% Change
 (in millions, except per share data) 
Net revenues$36,016 $31,496 $4,520 14.4 %
Operating income5,502 3,534 1,968 55.7 %
Earnings from continuing operations4,968 2,726 2,242 82.2 %
Net earnings attributable to
   Mondelēz International
4,959 2,717 2,242 82.5 %
Diluted earnings per share attributable to
   Mondelēz International
3.62 1.96 1.66 84.7 %

Net Revenues
Net revenues increased $4,520 million (14.4%) to $36,016 million in 2023, and Organic Net Revenue (1) increased $4,572 million (14.7%) to $35,570 million. Emerging markets net revenues increased 15.0% and emerging markets Organic Net Revenue increased 20.4% (1). Developed markets net revenues increased 13.9% and developed markets Organic Net Revenue increased 11.1% (1). The underlying changes in net revenues and Organic Net Revenue are detailed below:
Emerging
Markets
Developed
Markets
Mondelēz
International
For The Year Ended December 31, 2023
Reported (GAAP)$14,011 $22,005 $36,016 
Divestitures(5)(479)(484)
Short-term distributor agreements
(2)(20)(22)
Acquisitions(507)(529)(1,036)
Currency1,138 (42)1,096 
Organic (Non-GAAP)$14,635 $20,935 $35,570 
For The Year Ended December 31, 2022
Reported (GAAP)$12,184 $19,312 $31,496 
Divestitures(27)(471)(498)
Organic (Non-GAAP)$12,157 $18,841 $30,998 
$ Change
Reported (GAAP)
15.0  %13.9  %14.4  %
Divestitures0.2 pp0.4 pp0.2 pp
Short-term distributor agreements
— (0.2)— 
Acquisitions(4.2)(2.8)(3.4)
Currency9.4 (0.2)3.5 
Organic (Non-GAAP)
20.4 %11.1 %14.7 %
Vol/Mix2.8 pp0.4 pp1.3 pp
Pricing17.6 10.7 13.4 
 
(1)Please see the Non-GAAP Financial Measures section for additional information.

Net revenue increase of 14.4% was driven by our underlying Organic Net Revenue growth of 14.7%, the impact of acquisitions and the impact of a short-term distributor agreement, partially offset by unfavorable currency translation and the impact of divestitures. Overall, we continued to see strong demand for our snack category products across most regions. Organic Net Revenue growth was driven by higher net pricing and favorable volume/mix. Higher net pricing in all regions was due to the benefit of carryover pricing from 2022 as well as the effects of input cost-driven pricing actions taken during 2023. Favorable volume/mix was driven by AMEA, Latin America and Europe reflecting both improved product mix and volume gains, while volume/mix was essentially flat in North America. The November 1, 2022 acquisition of Ricolino added incremental net revenues of $507 million (constant currency basis) through the one-year anniversary of the acquisition. The August 1, 2022 acquisition of Clif Bar added incremental